:349 Manuel Giron was captured and executed in February 1929, and Sandino took a year's leave in Mexico.  Due to the rules governing the Council of State, in 1980 both non-FSLN junta members resigned. Only three votes were needed to pass law. However, the Council of State only gave political parties twelve of forty-seven seats, the rest of the seats were given to Sandinista mass-organizations. Set during the civil war of the 80s, itâs a peek into the lasting legacy that U.S. intervention has had in Central America. :143, Díaz's connection with the United States led to a decline in his popularity in Nicaragua. The FSLN evolved from one of many opposition groups to a leadership role in the overthrow of the Somoza regime. , The only American journalist who interviewed Sandino during this occupation was Carleton Beals of The Nation. Zeledón and most of his troops had fled the previous day during the bombardment, many to Masaya, where Nicaraguan government troops captured or killed most of them, including Zeledón. That November, Carter asked Congress for $80 million in new supplemental aid funds ($75 million for Nicaragua and $5 million for other Central American states), in addition to the $50 to $70 million of fiscal year 1980 funds that he requested be reprogrammed for Nicaragua. The Knox-Castrillo Treaty of 1911, ratified in 1912, put the U.S. in charge of much of Nicaragua's financial system. had entered Granada, Nicaragua (after being ambushed by rebels at Masaya on the nineteenth), where they were reinforced with the Marine first battalion commanded by Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton, U.S.M.C.. General Mena, the primary instigator of the failed coup d'etat surrendered his 700 troops to Southerland and was deported to Panama. Immigrants in 1925, another violent conflict between liberals and conservatives known as the Constitutionalist War took place in 1926, when Liberal soldiers in the Caribbean port of Puerto Cabezas revolted against Conservative President Adolfo Díaz, recently â¦ The Reagan administration insisted on the "Communist threat" posed by the Sandinistas—reacting particularly to the support provided to the Sandinistas by Cuban president Fidel Castro, by the Sandinistas' close military relations with the Soviets and Cubans, but also furthering the Reagan administration's desire to protect U.S. interests in the region, which were threatened by the policies of the Sandinista government. During the 1980s, Nicaragua was the center of Cold War confrontation in the Western Hemisphere, with the former Soviet Union and Cuba providing assistance to the Sandinista government, and the United States supporting anti-government forces. Years of conflict had left 50,000 casualties and $12b of damages in a society of 3.5m people and an annual GNP of $2b. , In 1909 Nicaraguan President José Santos Zelaya of the Liberal Party faced opposition from the Conservative Party, led by governor Juan José Estrada of Bluefields who received support from the U.S. government as a result of American entrepreneurs providing financial assistance to Estrada's rebellion in the hopes of gaining economic concessions after the rebellion's victory. In March 1982 the Sandinistas declared an official State of Emergency. For treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see Central America. One prominent Contra commander, however, was ex-Sandinista hero Edén Pastora, aka "Commadante Zero," who rejected the Leninist orientation of his fellow comandantes. Declining infant mortality and a wartime âbaby boomâ are possible explanations. President Reagan called the Contras "the moral equivalent of our founding fathers.". The five-member junta entered the Nicaraguan capital the next day and assumed power, reiterating its pledge to work for political pluralism, a mixed economic system, and a nonaligned foreign policy.. :293, Government forces were defeated on February 6 at Chinandega, followed by another defeat at Muy Muy, prompting US Marine landings at Corinto and the occupation of La Loma Fort in Managua. :297–299 However, the Liberal commander Augusto César Sandino, and 200 of his men refused to give up the revolution.  When Violetta Chamorro visited the White House in November 1989, the US pledged to maintain the embargo against Nicaragua unless Violeta Chamorro won. United States Secretary of State Philander C. Knox condemned Zelaya's actions, favoring Estrada. Soil erosion and dust storms were also a problem in Nicaragua at the time due to deforestation. Her earlier documentary, Living at Risk: The Story of a Nicaraguan Family (1985) more specifically told the story of the Barrios family, five siblings and Sandinista supporters at the height of the Contra war â a narrative she picked up again, collaboratively with filmmaker Alfred Guzzetti, in 2011âs The Barrios Family 25 Years Later. With Díaz safely in the presidency of the country, the United States proceeded to withdraw the majority of its forces from Nicaraguan territory, leaving one hundred Marines to "protect the American legation in Managua". The FSLN won the majority of the votes. Paperback. The formal occupation began in 1912, even though there were various other assaults by the U.S. in Nicaragua throughout this period. The Sandinista controlled mass organizations were extremely influential over civil society and saw their power and popularity peak in the mid-1980s.. Some 250 people have been killed in violence that has sparked fears of a return to the dark days of the 1970s and 80s. On October 6, 1,000 bluejackets and Marines, from the cruisers USS California, USS Colorado, and Denver led by Lieutenant Colonel Charles G. Long, U.S.M.C. (William I Robinson, op cit) The Library of Congress Country Studies on Nicaragua states: Despite limited resources and poor organization, the UNO coalition under Violeta Chamorro directed a campaign centered around the failing economy and promises of peace. The Sandinistas were victorious in the national election of November 4, 1984, gathering 67% of the vote. , The forces of Chamorro and Nicaraguan General Juan Estrada, each leading conservative revolts against Zelaya's government, had captured three small towns on the border with Costa Rica and were fomenting open rebellion in the capital of Managua. Set during the civil war of the 80s, itâs a peek into the lasting legacy that U.S. intervention has had in Central America. 2005) Page 5 The various forms of public, private, associative, cooperative, and communal property shall be guaranteed and encouraged without discrimination in order to At the time the revolution broke out, the Pacific Fleet gunboat USS Annapolis (PG-10) was on routine patrol off the west coast of Nicaragua. Nicaragua - Nicaragua - Agriculture, forestry, and fishing: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing engage as much as one-third of the labour force and produce about one-fifth of the total national income. Central America, 1981â1993. Nicaragua, Guatemala: '80s Rebels Seek Leadership . Mr. Solis had been a loyal member of the presidentâs Sandinista Front party since he helped Mr. Ortega fight a guerrilla war against the Somoza dictatorship in the 1970s. :144, In mid-1912 Mena persuaded the Nicaraguan national assembly to name him successor to Díaz when Díaz's term expired in 1913. The Somoza dictatorship was finally (and violently) overthrown by the Sandinista National Liberation Front who struggled to govern a country ravaged by years of war. Nicaraguan Civil War. Agricultural production had been severely disrupted by the campaigns of the FSLN, while industrial production had been thrown into chaos by the mass strike action. constituteproject.org PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 20:34 Nicaragua 1987 (rev. With the insurgents driven from Masaya, Southerland ordered the occupation of Leon to stop any further interference with the U.S.-controlled railroad. The FSLN was founded in 1962 by â¦ On October 2, Nicaraguan government troops loyal to President Diaz delivered a surrender ultimatum to Zelaydón, who refused. The report, which covered the period from April 18 to Aug. 18, detailed the governmentâs initial, repressive response to the anti-government protests and the subsequent âclean-upâ operation to foâ¦ Hidden U.S. involvement 4.2.1. 4.6 out of 5 stars 7. , USS Denver (CL-16), commanded by Commander Thomas Washington arrived at Corinto on August 27, 1912, with 350 navy bluejackets and Marines on board. , In August 1989, the month that campaigning began, the Contras redeployed 8,000 troops into Nicaragua, after a funding boost from Washington, becoming in effect the armed wing of the UNO, carrying out a violent campaign of intimidation. U.S. minister George Wetzel cabled Washington to send U.S. troops to safeguard the U.S. 1. The FSLN took over a nation plagued by malnutrition, disease, and pesticide contaminations. , As the flagship of the Nicaraguan Expeditionary Squadron, under Admiral William W. Kimball, Albany spent the next five months in Central America, mostly at Corinto, maintaining U.S. neutrality in the ongoing rebellion, sometimes under criticism by the U.S. press and business interests that were displeased by Kimball's "friendly" attitude toward the liberal Madriz administration. "We are what we think. Protracted civil war and revolutionary struggles had brought the economy of Nicaragua to the brink of collapse. During the 1980s, the United States supported a counterinsurgency war in El Salvador and directed a guerrilla insurgency in Nicaragua. Following a huge mobilization of the revolutionary forces, ... Sandinista victory in what had become, by that time, a full-blown civil-war. The U.S. was primarily concerned about the effect of the Nicaraguan Revolution on neighboring countries, specifically El Salvador, which would soon find itself in the midst of its own civil war. Salman Rushdie visited in the 1980s in support of local writers during the civil war and his account, The Jaguar Smile: A Nicaraguan Journey, is worth a read to get a flavour for that time. Civil war erupted between the conservative and liberal factions on May 2, 1926, with liberals capturing Bluefields, and José María Moncada Tapia capturing Puerto Cabezas in August. Mena managed to gain the support of the National Assembly, accusing Díaz of "selling out the nation to New York bankers". Nicaragua's large agrarian population and urban workers throughout the 1960's and 70's. Young guerrilla cadres and the National Guardsmen were clashing almost daily in cities throughout the country. Following the resignation of centrist members from this Junta, the FSLN took exclusive power in March 1981. The nine-year Contra War left nearly 31,000 Nicaraguans dead, more than 2,000 civilians maimed, and some 350,000 people internally displaced out of a population of 3.5 million.  The primary opposition candidate was the U.S.-backed Arturo Cruz, who succumbed to pressure from the United States government not to take part in the 1984 elections; later US officials were quoted as saying, "the (Reagan) Administration never contemplated letting Cruz stay in the race, because then the Sandinistas could justifiably claim that the elections were legitimate...Other Administration officials vehemently denied this contention. With the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980, relations between the United States and the Sandinista regime became an active front in the Cold War. With our thoughts, we make the world. Page 74. Reaganâs efforts to strengthen the Contras met with opposition from a divided Congress and resistance in Nicaragua. In 1982, legislation was enacted in the U.S. to prohibit further direct aid to the Contras. âRosario had no influence in the â80s and â90s,â said Victor Hugo Tinoco, a former Sandinista who served as United Nations ambassador and deputy foreign minister in Ortegaâs first term. Nicaragua assumed a quasi-protectorate status under the 1916 Bryan–Chamorro Treaty. Under this backdrop, Denver and seven other ships from the Pacific Fleet arrived at Corinto, Nicaragua, from late August to September 1912, under the command of Rear Admiral W.H.H. Nicaraguan civil war (1926â1927) Following the evacuation of U.S. The FSLN also established a Council of State, subordinate to the junta, which was composed of representative bodies. On January 2, 1933, Hoover ended the American intervention. Nicaraguans fear return to civil war past. While initially seeking to remain in power to serve out Somoza's presidential term, Urcuyo seceded his position to the junta and fled to Guatemala two days later. Limbaugh misrepresented the preponderance of scientific opinion pertinent to global warming.â Nicaragua also has a civilian militia of 50,000, in addition to those on active duty, â¦ Despite the loss of nearly 30,000 people who were killed in the countryâs civil war, and the hundreds of thousands who took refuge abroad, Nicaraguaâs population increased from 2.5 million to nearly 4 million during Sandinista rule (1979â90). The Nicaraguan Civil War of 1926â27, or the Constitutionalist War, broke out after a coup d'état by Emiliano Chamorro, a member of the Conservative Party, removed Nicaragua's democratically elected government, resulting in a rebellion by members of the Liberal Party.The conflict came to an end after a military and diplomatic intervention by the United States resulted in the Peace of Tipitapa. In the end about 75,000 people died as result of the civil war between 1980 and 1992. The proportionately equivalent figures for the US would have been 5 million casualties and $25 trillion lost. :299, On June 30, Sandino seized the San Albino gold mine, denounced the Conservative government, and attracted recruits to continue operations. By Laura Sullivan â¢ Nov 6, 2011 Laura Sullivan â¢ Nov 6, 2011 The results were grim. Two Americans, Leonard Groce and Lee Roy Cannon, were captured and indicted for allegedly joining the rebellion and the laying of mines. Despite additional conflict with Sandino's rebels, US supervised elections were held on November 4, 1928, with Moncada the winner. A regional peace initiative brought an end to civil war in the late 1980s. Some 250 people have been killed in violence that has sparked fears of a return to the dark days of the 1970s and 80s. They were followed by Smedley Butler's return from Panama with 350 Marines. when the U.S got involved it was known as the Contra war because that was the name of the guerrilla army that targeted the infrastructure and economy of Nicaragua. , The protected cruisers USS Des Moines (CL-17), USS Tacoma (CL-20), and collier USS Hannibal (AG-1) lay in the harbor at Bluefields, Nicaragua, on the Atlantic coast with USS Prairie (AD-5) en route for Colón, Panama, with 700 Marines. The Reagan administration decided it could solve the problem of El Salvador's civil war by giving covert aid to rebels fighting the Sandinistas. The Sandinista controlled mass organizations were extremely influential over civil society and saw their power and popularity peak in the mid-1980s. Dec 2, 2014 - Explore Marvin Miller's board "Nicaragua", followed by 970 people on Pinterest. The policy opened the door for American banks to lend money to the Nicaraguan government, ensuring United States control over the country's finances. Ortega has continued to be an active critic of the âNicaraguan governmentâs policies and âinternational aggressorsâ and is the FSLNâs most influential member, leading most student protests, workerâs strikes, and other political maneuvers.â (1) By Daniel L. Gordon Volunteer for the Cold War Museum captured the city of Leon, Nicaragua, the last stronghold of the insurgency. L. Craig Johnstone, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Central America, said...'Anyone who would allege that we don't favor full participation in the election doesn't know what he's talking about.'"  By mid-March 1910, the insurgency led by Estrada and Chamorro had seemingly collapsed and with the apparent and unexpected strength of Madriz, the U.S. Nicaraguan Expeditionary Squadron completed its withdrawal from Nicaraguan waters. $9.99 #37. Reagan's officials attempted to illegally supply them out of the proceeds of arms sales to Iran and third party donations, triggering the Iran-Contra Affair of 1986-87. Not long after the United States passed the 1980 Refugee Act, thousands of people began fleeing civil war in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. Demographic trends. Paramilitary Wâ¦ By mid-April 1979, five guerrilla fronts opened under the joint command of the FSLN, including an internal front in the capital city Managua. Anti-government protesters set up barricades all across the â¦ :292–293 On January 24, 1927, the first elements of US forces arrived, with 400 marines.  Those who did oppose the Sandinistas won approximately a third of the seats. $17.05 #16. ... has sparked fears of a return to the dark days of the 1970s and 80s.  Other observers, the Nicaraguan political opposition and the Reagan administration claimed political restrictions were placed on the opposition by the government, and that a relatively short period of greater openness was not sufficient for a free election. El Salvador fought a bloody war throughout the 1980s as US backed government forces sought to quel a leftist uprising from the FMLN. This landing party reembarked aboard ship October 24 and 25, 1912. , Council of National Reconstruction (1979–1980), The Cuban revolution and its extension: Resolution of the Socialist Workers Party. 4.8 out of 5 stars 80. Written by Luis Moreno (known as "Mike Lima" during this decade long conflict) the author examines in his book Principio Y Fin de la Guerra de los Contras (The Contras War: From Beginning to End) the armed struggle and the strategy that may have cost the lives of more than 6,000 Contra fighters and a total of some 15,000 anti-Sandinista supporters and family members in and out of Nicaragua. Costa Rica has no army but does have a 9,500- man Civil Guard. these two things were targeted in order to overthrow the Sandinista. As the Nicaraguan conflict spread, Hondurans were left to ponder the merits of the deal the armed forces had brokered. On December 12, 1909, Albany with 280 bluejackets and the gunboat USS Yorktown (PG-1) with 155, arrived at Corinto, Nicaragua, to join the gunboat USS Vicksburg (PG-11) with her crew of 155 allegedly to protect American citizens and property on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. :143, By 1912 the ongoing political conflict in Nicaragua between the liberal and conservative factions had deteriorated to the point that U.S. investments under President Taft's Dollar Diplomacy including substantial loans to the fragile coalition government of conservative President Juan José Estrada were in jeopardy. The commander of the American forces was Admiral William Henry Hudson Southerland, joined by Colonel Joseph Henry Pendleton and 750 Marines.  Beginning on the morning of September 27 and continuing through October 1, Nicaraguan government forces bombarded Barranca and Coyotepe, two hills overlooking the all-important railway line at Masaya that Zeledón and about 550 of his men occupied, halfway between Managua and Granada. Urban insurrection was the crucial element because the FSLN could never hope to achieve simple superiority in men and firepower over the National Guard.. The United Nations estimated material damage from the revolutionary war to be US$480 million. The Sandinistas .  Of the twelve seats reserved for political parties, only three were not allied to the FSLN. :297 In May, Henry Stimson brokered a peace deal which included disarmament and promised elections in 1928.  Admiral Southerland's priorities were to re-establish and safeguard the disrupted railway and cable lines between the principal port of Corinto and Managua, 110 kilometres (70 mi) to the southeast. Minister of War General Luis Mena forced Estrada to resign. ... forces against a US-backed dictatorship during the Nicaraguan civil war. The members of the new junta were Daniel Ortega (FSLN), Moisés Hassan (FPN), Sergio Ramírez (the "Twelve"), Alfonso Robelo (MDN) and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, the widow of La Prensa's director Pedro Joaquín Chamorro.  Following their seizure of power, the Sandinistas ruled the country first as part of a Junta of National Reconstruction. Madriz in turn had to face an advance by the reinvigorated eastern rebel forces, which ultimately led to his resignation. He lost comrades and a leg after he was hit by a grenade fired from a rocket-propelled launcher. I interviewed my father, who was a young man during the 80s, what he â¦  To begin the task of establishing a new government, they founded a Council (or junta) of National Reconstruction, made up of five appointed members. Reasons for U.S. involvement in Nicaragua during the 1980s 3.1. The United States quickly suspended aid to Nicaragua and expanded the supply of arms and training to the Contra in neighbouring Honduras, as well as allied groups based to the south in Costa Rica. The valleys of the western central mountains yield about one-fourth of the national agricultural production. , On August 29, 1912, a landing force of 120 men from USS Denver, under the command of the ship's navigator, Lieutenant Allen B. Reed, landed at Corinto to protect the railway line running from Corinto to Managua and then south to Granada on the north shore of Lake Nicaragua. Following his electoral victory in November 1980, President Ronald Reagan amplified the concerns expressed by President Carter and Congress about foreign support of Central American leftist guerrilla forces. Southerland. Lake Managua was considered dead because of decades of pesticide runoff, toxic chemical pollution from lakeside factories, and untreated sewage. On July 19, the FSLN army entered Managua, culminating the first goal of the Nicaraguan revolution. A force of 350 U.S. Marines shipped north on the collier USS Justin from the Canal Zone and disembarked at Managua to reinforce the legation guard on August 15, 1912. , Estrada’s administration allowed President William Howard Taft and Secretary of State Philander C. Knox to apply the Dollar Diplomacy or "dollars for bullets" policy. :291 Juan Bautista Sacasa declared himself Constitutional President of Nicaragua from Puerto Cabezas on December 1, 1926. :359 The Battle of El Sauce was the last major engagement of the US intervention. No fewer than 50 FSLN candidates were assassinated. In late August 2018, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights issued a blistering report on the political violence in Nicaragua that killed more than 300 people and injured more than 2,000 in the previous months. Nationalistic sentiments arose in the Nicaraguan military, including Luis Mena, the Secretary of War. As Nicaragua's government collapsed and the National Guard commanders escaped with Somoza, the U.S. first promised and then denied them exile in Miami. It was a war that Ronald Reagan, President of the United States at the time, fought without Congressâs knowledge. Nicaragua, Guatemala: '80s Rebels Seek Leadership Twenty-five years ago, both Central American countries were in the midst of violent civil wars. , The preponderance of power also remained with the Sandinistas through their mass organizations, including the Sandinista Workers' Federation (Central Sandinista de Trabajadores), the Luisa Amanda Espinoza Nicaraguan Women's Association (Asociación de Mujeres Nicaragüenses Luisa Amanda Espinoza), the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers (Unión Nacional de Agricultores y Ganaderos), and most importantly the Sandinista Defense Committees (CDS). On October 23, Southerland announced that but for the Nicaraguan elections in early November, he would withdraw most of the U.S. landing forces.  Many civil liberties were curtailed or canceled such as the freedom to organize demonstrations, the inviolability of the home, freedom of the press, freedom of speech and, the freedom to strike. While Marxist in ideology, the Sandinistas did not implement Soviet-style centralized socialism, but â¦ The rebels advanced on the capital victoriously. The Conservative Party sought to overthrow Zelaya which led to Estrada's rebellion in December 1909. Nicaraguan civil war (1926â1927) Following the evacuation of U.S. This is the biggest uprising the country has seen since the civil war 30 years ago.  Ortega was overwhelmingly elected President in 1984, but the long years of war had decimated Nicaragua's economy and widespread poverty ensued. In 1983, Reagan stated: "There can be no question: the security of all the Americas is at stake in Central America. By Laura Sullivan â¢ Nov 6, 2011 . In the 19th century 2.2. ... Civil War, and Politics in Nicaragua Charles River Editors. The goal was to undermine European financial strength in the region, which threatened American interests to construct a canal in the isthmus, and also to protect American private investment in the development of Nicaragua's natural resources. On July 9, the provisional government in exile released a government program, in which it pledged to organize an effective democratic regime, promote political pluralism and universal suffrage, and ban ideological discrimination, except for those promoting the "return of Somoza's rule". The story follows a young Nicaraguan boy whose village is taken over by American troops, throwing him into the conflict. The strategic goal of the Final Offensive was the division of the enemy's forces. Large-scale migration to the United States from Central America began, as hundreds of thousands of Salvadorans, Guatemalans, and Nicaraguans fled north from civil war, repression, and â¦ TWILIGHT STRUGGLE: American Power and Nicaragua, 1977-1990 Robert Kagan. â¦ Present-day Nicaragua is still recovering from its legacy of dictatorship and civil war. Kinzer was a first-hand witness to much of Nicaragua's turbulent '80s -- from the last days of the Somoza dictatorship through the Sandinista revolution, civil war with the U.S.-backed contras and the eventual ceasefire. GRAPHIC CONTENT. The Nicaraguan Civil War of 1926â27, or the Constitutionalist War, broke out after a coup d'état by Emiliano Chamorro, a member of the Conservative Party, removed Nicaragua's democratically elected government, resulting in a rebellion by members of the Liberal Party. In December 1981, the Salvadoran Army massacred close to 1,000 men, women, and children in the village of El Mozote and in neighboring hamlets. When the United States refused to recognize the Nicaraguan assembly's decision, Mena rebelled against the Díaz government. Firearm Discussion and Resources from AR-15, AK-47, Handguns and more! History of U.S. Measures of the involvement and Congressâ decisions 4.1. Rear Admiral Southerland realized that Nicaraguan government forces would not vanquish the insurgents by bombardment or infantry assault, and ordered the Marine commanders to prepare to take the hills. . Insurgents attacked the capital, Managua, subjecting it to a four-hour bombardment. From 1979 to 1990 the Nicaraguan Civil War was fought between the Sandinista National Liberation Front and the Contras. :296 By March, the US had 2,000 troops in Nicaragua under the command of General Logan Feland. Buy, Sell, and Trade your Firearms and Gear. , On May 27, 1910, U.S. Marine Corps Major Smedley Butler arrived on the coast of Nicaragua with 250 Marines, for the purpose of providing security in Bluefields. In addition, Sandinista censor Nelba Cecilia Blandón issued a decree ordering all radio stations to hook up every six hours to government radio station, La Voz de La Defensa de La Patria. legation.. The long war against the Contras severely weakened Nicaraguan economy, weakening the position of the Sandinistas. The election was certified as "free and fair" by the majority of international observers. Nicaraguans fear return to civil war past 11/07/2018 Oman Observer When still just 16, Alvaro Gomez fought with revolutionary forces against a US-backed dictatorship during the Nicaraguan civil war. All that we are arises with our thoughts. Intervention in Nicaragua 2.1. The Contra War of the 1980s is the war that gives Nicaragua its bad name. The Contras also distributed thousands of UNO leaflets. Most of these people were simply civilians in the wrong place at the wrong time. ... the civil war in the â80s and the 30 years since then. Gannon, of Northampton, had worked as a reporter in Nicaragua and El Salvador in the 1980s, covering civil war and human rights abuses that made international headlines. See more ideas about nicaragua, civil war, nicaraguan. when the U.S got involved it was known as the Contra war because that was the name of the guerrilla army that targeted the infrastructure and economy of Nicaragua. Opposition groups, however, said that the FSLN domination of government organs, mass organizations groups, and much of the media created a climate of intimidation that precluded a truly open election.".
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