The automation tools can handle different fabric topologies and form factors, creating a modular solution that can adapt to different-sized data centers. ● LAN Fabric mode: provides Fabric Builder for automated VXLAN EVPN fabric underlay deployment, overlay deployment, end-to-end flow trace, alarm and troubleshooting, configuration compliance and device lifecycle management, etc. The Layer 3 internal routed traffic is routed directly by the distributed anycast gateway on each ToR switch in a scale-out fashion. With Layer 2 segments extended across all the pods, the data center administrator can create a central, more flexible resource pool that can be reallocated based on needs. With VRF-lite, the number of VLANs supported across the FabricPath network is 4096. Software management tools such as DCIM (Data Center Infrastructure Management), CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System), EPMS (Electrical Power Monitoring System), and DMS (Document Management System) for operations and maintenance can provide a “single pane of glass” to view all required procedures, infrastructure assets, maintenance activities, and operational issues. ● It reduces network flooding through protocol-based host MAC address IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. Many different tools are available from Cisco, third parties, and the open-source community that can be used to monitor, manage, automate, and troubleshoot the data center fabric. With a spine-and-leaf architecture, no matter which leaf switch to which a server is connected, its traffic always has to cross the same number of devices to get to another server (unless the other server is located on the same leaf). Intel RSD defines key aspects of a logical architecture to implement CDI. The overlay encapsulation also allows the underlying infrastructure address space to be administered separately from the tenant address space. It provides workflow automation, flow policy management, and third-party studio equipment integration, etc. For additional information, see the following references: ● Data center overlay technologies: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-730116.html, ● VXLAN network with MP-BGP EVPN control plane: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/guide-c07-734107.html, ● Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center white paper: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-743245.html, ● XLAN EVPN TRM blog: https://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/vxlan-innovations-on-the-nexus-os-part-1-of-2, View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices, Ingress-replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Note that ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. If oversubscription of a link occurs (that is, if more traffic is generated than can be aggregated on the active link at one time), the process for expanding capacity is straightforward. VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN uses distributed anycast gateways for internal routed traffic. But the FabricPath network is flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. Green certifications, such as LEED, Green Globes, and Energy Star are also considered optional. In 2013, UI requested that TIA stop using the Tier system to describe reliability levels, and TIA switched to using the word “Rated” in lieu of “Tiers,” defined as Rated 1-4. But a FabricPath network is a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. VLAN has local significance on the leaf VTEP switch, and the VNI has global significance across the VXLAN network. Regardless of the standard followed, documentation and record keeping of your operation and maintenance activities is one of the most important parts of the process. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. For a FabricPath network, the FabricPath IS-IS control plane by default creates two multidestination trees that carry broadcast traffic, unknown unicast traffic, and multicast traffic through the FabricPath network. Traditional three-tier data center design. Internal and external routing on the spine layer. The layered methodology is the elementary foundation of the data center design that improves scalability, flexibility, performance, maintenance, and resiliency. 2. The spine switch has two functions. You need to consider MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limit on the border leaf switch. Common Layer 3 designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). ● It uses the decade-old MP-BGP VPN technology to support scalable multitenant VXLAN overlay networks. Interest in overlay networks has also increased with the introduction of new encapsulation frame formats specifically built for the data center. This capability enables optimal forwarding for northbound traffic from end hosts in the VXLAN overlay network. These VTEPs are Layer 2 VXLAN gateways for VXLAN-to-VLAN or VLAN-to-VXLAN bridging. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, it suffers the same flooding challenges as the FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. Cisco spine-and-leaf layer 2 and layer 3 fabric comparison, Cisco Spine-and-Leaf Layer 2 and Layer 3 Fabric, Forwarded by underlay PIM or ingress replication, (Note: Ingress-replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Network overlays are virtual networks of interconnected nodes that share an underlying physical network, allowing deployment of applications that require specific network topologies without the need to modify the underlying network (Figure 5). We are continuously innovating the design and systems of our data centers to protect them from man-made and natural risks. ● The EVPN address family carries both Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information, thus providing integrated bridging and routing in VXLAN overlay networks. The most efficient and effective data center designs use relatively new design fundamentals to create the required high energy density, high reliability environment. That’s the goal of Intel Rack Scale Design (Intel RSD), a blueprint for unleashing industry innovation around a common CDI-based data center architecture. The design encourages the overlap of these functions and creates a public route through the building. This feature uses a 24-bit increased name space. Similarly, Layer 3 segmentation among VXLAN tenants is achieved by applying Layer 3 VRF technology and enforcing routing isolation among tenants by using a separate Layer 3 VNI mapped to each VRF instance. It is an industry-standard protocol and uses underlay IP networks. At the same time, it runs the normal IPv4 or IPv6 unicast routing in the tenant VRF instances with the external routing device on the outside. Enterprise and High Performance Computing users recognize the value of critical facilities — connecting to a brand is as important as connecting to the campus. Table 5. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, it suffers the same flooding challenges as a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. A new data center design called the Clos network–based spine-and-leaf architecture was developed to overcome these limitations. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Both designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 internal and external routing functions are centralized on specific switches. Design for external routing at the border leaf. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses Layer 3 IP for the underlay network. In this two-tier Clos architecture, every lower-tier switch (leaf layer) is connected to each of the top-tier switches (spine layer) in a full-mesh topology. Internal and external routed traffic needs to travel two underlay hops from the leaf VTEP to the spine switch and then to the border leaf switch to reach the external network. These are standards that guide your day-to-day processes and procedures once the data center is built: These standards will also vary based on the nature of the business and include guidelines associated with detailed operations and maintenance procedures for all of the equipment in the data center. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. Distributed anycast gateway for internal routing. ), common designs, and design considerations (Layer 3 gateway, etc.) Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices: This standard covers the major aspects of planning, design, construction, and commissioning of the MEP building trades, as well as fire protection, IT, and maintenance. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network doesn’t have a control plane for the overlay network. The Tiers are compared in the table below and can b… Should it have the minimum required by code? That traffic needs to be routed by a Layer 3 function enabled on FabricPath switches (default gateways and border switches). Data Centre World Singapore speaker and mission critical architect Will Ringer attests to the importance of an architect’s eye to data centre design. The multicast distribution tree for this group is built through the transport network based on the locations of participating VTEPs. IP subnets of the VNIs for a given tenant are in the same Layer 3 VRF instance that separates the Layer 3 routing domain from the other tenants. It complies with IETF VXLAN standards RFC 7348 and RFC8365 (previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay). An international series of data center standards in continuous development is the EN 50600 series. It provides real-time health summaries, alarms, visibility information, etc. To support multitenancy, same VLANs can be reused on different FabricPath leaf switches, and IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames are mapped to specific VN-segments. This Shortest-Path First (SPF) routing protocol is used to determine reachability and select the best path or paths to any given destination FabricPath switch in the FabricPath network. This approach reduces network flooding for end-host learning and provides better control over end-host reachability information distribution. Layer 2 multitenancy example using the VNI. The multi-tier data center model is dominated by HTTP-based applications in a multi-tier approach. Code minimum fire suppression would involve having wet pipe sprinklers in your data center. Two major design options are available: internal and external routing at a border spine, and internal and external routing at a border leaf. Its architecture is based around the idea of a simple volumetric block enveloped by opaque, transparent, and translucent surfaces. Table 3 summarizes the characteristics of the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network. The FabricPath network is a Layer 2 network, and Layer 3 SVIs are laid on top of the Layer 2 FabricPath switch. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture offers the following main benefits: ● The MP-BGP EVPN protocol is based on industry standards, allowing multivendor interoperability. The investment giant is one of the biggest advocates outside Silicon Valley for open source hardware, and the new building itself is a modular, just-in-time construction design. The FabricPath network supports up to four anycast gateways for internal VLAN routing. It reduces network flooding through control-plane-based host MAC and IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for the VXLAN overlay network. Each host is associated with a host subnet and talks with other hosts through Layer 3 routing. The multi-tier model uses software that runs as separate processes on the same machine using interprocess communication (IPC), or on different machines with communication… Underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature is used to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. An additional spine switch can be added, and uplinks can be extended to every leaf switch, resulting in the addition of interlayer bandwidth and reduction of the oversubscription. With virtualized servers, applications are increasingly deployed in a distributed fashion, which leads to increased east-west traffic. The nature of your business will determine which standards are appropriate for your facility. ), Any unicast routing protocol (static, OSPF, IS-IS, eBGP, etc. This section describes Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn characteristic on these Cisco hardware switches. The VN-segment feature provides a new way to tag packets on the wire, replacing the traditional IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag. It doesn’t learn the overlay host MAC address. The SVIs on the border leaf switches perform inter-VLAN routing for east-west internal traffic and exchange routing adjacency with Layer 3 routed uplinks to route north-south external traffic. Traditional three-tier data center design The architecture consists of core routers, aggregation routers (sometimes called distribution routers), and access switches. It is part of the underlay Layer 3 IP network and transports the VXLAN encapsulated packets. Regarding routing design, the Cisco MSDC control plane uses dynamic Layer 3 protocols such as eBGP to build the routing table that most efficiently routes a packet from a source to a spine node. ● Media controller mode: manages Cisco IP Fabric network for Media solution and helps transition from an SDI router to an IP-based infrastructure. TOP 30 DATA CENTER ARCHITECTURE FIRMS Rank Firm 2015 Revenue 1 Gensler $34,240,000 2 Corgan $32,400,000 3 HDR $15,740,000 4 Page $14,100,000 5 CallisonRTKL $6,102,000 6 RS&H $5,400,000 7 … The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for VXLAN. The spine switch is just part of the underlay Layer 3 IP network to transport the VXLAN encapsulated packets. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. VNIs are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. Layer 3 multitenancy example with VRF-lite, Cisco FabricPath Spine-and-Leaf network summary. In a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic is supported using underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature. This design complies with the IETF RFC 7348 and draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay standards. The border leaf router is enabled with the Layer 3 VXLAN gateway and performs internal inter-VXLAN routing and external routing. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) of choice. The Layer 2 and Layer 3 function is enabled on some FabricPath leaf switches called border leaf switches. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. Data center design, construction, and operational standards should be chosen based on definition of that mission. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 2 FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation, and it uses FabricPath IS-IS for the control-plane in the underlay network. These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the BGP EVPN control plane or static configuration. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 3 IP for the underlay network. settling within the mountainous site of sejong city, BEHIVE presents the ‘cloud ring’ data center for naver, the largest internet enterprise in korea. Another challenge in a three-tier architecture is that server-to-server latency varies depending on the traffic path used. Data Center Architects are responsible for adequately securing the Data Center and should examine factors such as facility design and architecture. If deviations are necessary because of site limitations, financial limitations, or availability limitations, they should be documented and accepted by all stakeholders of the facility. It encapsulates Ethernet frames into IP User Data Protocol (UDP) headers and transports the encapsulated packets through the underlay network to the remote VXLAN tunnel endpoints (VTEPs) using the normal IP routing and forwarding mechanism. The VXLAN VTEP uses a list of IP addresses of other VTEPs in the network to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. It is a for-profit entity that will certify a facility to its standard, for which the standard is often criticized. In a typical VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network design, the leaf Top-of-Rack (ToR) switches are enabled as VTEP devices to extend the Layer 2 segments between racks. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper.). Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture is one of the latest innovations from Cisco. ), Cisco’s Massively Scalable Data Center Network Fabric White Paper, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-management/prime-data-center-network-manager/index.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/data-center-analytics/network-insights-data-center/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-730116.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/guide-c07-734107.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-743245.html, https://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/vxlan-innovations-on-the-nexus-os-part-1-of-2, Cisco MDS 9000 10-Gbps 8-Port FCoE Module Extends Fibre Channel over Ethernet to the Data Center Core. January 15, 2020. With overlays used at the fabric edge, the spine and core devices are freed from the need to add end-host information to their forwarding tables. Similarly, there is no single way to manage the data center fabric. This section describes VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN on Cisco Nexus hardware switches such as the Cisco Nexus 5600 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 7000 and 9000 Series Switches. Our client-first culture and multi-disciplinary architecture and engineering experts recognize the power of design in transforming the human experience. Since 2003, with the introduction of virtual technology, the computing, networking, and storage resources that were segregated in pods in Layer 2 in the three-tier data center design can be pooled. It enables you to provision, monitor, and troubleshoot the data center network infrastructure. This design complies with IETF VXLAN standards RFC 7348 and draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay. Cisco MSDC Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. Mr. Shapiro is the author of numerous technical articles and is also a speaker at many technical industry seminars. Application and Virtualization Infrastructure Are Directly Linked to Data Center Design. This architecture is the physical and logical layout of the resources and equipment within a data center facility. FabricPath enables new capabilities and design options that allow network operators to create Ethernet fabrics that increase bandwidth availability, provide design flexibility, and simplify and reduce the costs of network and application deployment and operation. With the ingress replication feature, the underlay network is multicast free. This document reviews several spine-and-leaf architecture designs that Cisco has offered in the recent past as well as current designs and those the Cisco expects to offer in the near future to address fabric requirements in the modern virtualized data center: ● Cisco® FabricPath spine-and-leaf network, ● Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, ● Cisco VXLAN Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) spine-and-leaf network, ● Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center (MSDC) Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. Each VXLAN segment has a VXLAN network identifier (VNID), and the VNID is mapped to an IP multicast group in the transport IP network. This course encompasses the basic principles of data center design, tracking its history from the early days of the mainframe to the modern enterprise data center in its many forms and the future. Cisco Layer 3 MSDC network characteristics, Data Center fabric management and automation. After MAC-to-VTEP mapping is complete, the VTEPs forward VXLAN traffic in a unicast stream. This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. For more information about Cisco DCNM, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-management/prime-data-center-network-manager/index.html. The result is increased stability and scalability, fast convergence, and the capability to use multiple parallel paths typical in a Layer 3 routed environment. Data centers often have multiple fiber connections to the internet provided by multiple … Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN network characteristics, Localized flood and learn with ARP suppression, Forwarded by underlay multicast (PIM) or ingress replication, (Note: Ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. The border leaf switch learns external routes and advertises them to the EVPN domain as EVPN routes so that other VTEP leaf nodes can also learn about the external routes for sending outbound traffic. A central datastructure or data store or data repository, which is responsible for providing permanent data storage. Codes must be followed when designing, building, and operating your data center, but “code” is the minimum performance requirement to ensure life safety and energy efficiency in most cases. However, the spine switch only needs to run the BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing; it doesn’t need to support the VXLAN VTEP function. Gensler, Corgan, and HDR top Building Design+Construction’s annual ranking of the nation’s largest data center sector architecture and A/E firms, as reported in the 2016 Giants 300 Report. Broadcast and unknown unicast traffic in FabricPath is flooded to all FabricPath edge ports in the VLAN or broadcast domain. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses VXLAN encapsulation. This document presented several spine-and-leaf architecture designs from Cisco, including the most important technology components and design considerations for each architecture at the time of the writing of this document. From Cisco DCNM Release 11.2, Cisco Network Insights applications are supported; these applications consist of monitoring utilities that can be added to the Data Center Network Manager (DCNM). Cisco DCNM can be installed in four modes: ● Classic LAN mode: manages Cisco Nexus Data Center infrastructure deployed in legacy designs, such as vPC design, FabricPath design, etc. Table 4 summarizes the characteristics of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network. Example of MSDC Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network with BGP control plane. Each VTEP performs local learning to obtain MAC address (though traditional MAC address learning) and IP address information (based on Address Resolution Protocol [ARP] snooping) from its locally attached hosts. Overlay tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic is supported by two ways: (1) Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing on an external router for Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches including the Cisco Nexus 7700 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Each FabricPath switch is identified by a FabricPath switch ID. With vPC technology, Spanning Tree Protocol is still used as a fail-safe mechanism. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. Data center design with extended Layer 3 domain. However, vPC can provide only two active parallel uplinks, and so bandwidth becomes a bottleneck in a three-tier data center architecture. The Cisco FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco. Designing the modern data center begins with the careful placement of “good bones.”. These are the VN-segment core ports. ● Cisco Network Insights – Resources (NIR): provides a way to gather information through data collection to get an overview of available resources and their active processes and configurations across the entire Data Center Network Manager (DCNM). The Layer 3 routing function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. Mr. Shapiro has extensive experience in the design and management of corporate and mission critical facilities projects with over 4 million square feet of raised floor experience, over 175 MW of UPS experience and over 350 MW of generator experience. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 multitenancy using VRF-lite (Figure 15). Cisco spine-and-leaf layer 2 and layer 3 fabric comparison. The original Layer 2 frame is encapsulated in a VXLAN header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across the IP network. A distributed anycast gateway also offers the benefit of transparent host mobility in the VXLAN overlay network. ), (Note: The spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing VTEP on hardware. Each tenant has its own VRF routing instance. The VLAN has local significance on the FabricPath leaf switch, and VN-segments have global significance across the FabricPath network. It retains the easy-configuration, plug-and-play deployment model of a Layer 2 environment. His experience also includes providing analysis of critical application support facilities. The Tiers are compared in the table below and can be found in greater definition in UI’s white paper TUI3026E. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network relies on initial data-plane traffic flooding to enable VTEPs to discover each other and to learn remote host MAC addresses and MAC-to-VTEP mappings for each VXLAN segment. We will discuss best practices with respect to facility conceptual design, space planning, building construction, and physical security, as well as mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection. Also, with SVIs enabled on the spine switch, the spine switch disables conversational learning and learns the MAC address in the corresponding subnet. Benefits of a network virtualization overlay include the following: ● Optimized device functions: Overlay networks allow the separation (and specialization) of device functions based on where a device is being used in the network. Architecture & Design Jobs in Davenport, IA posted on Oodle. Linkedin Twitter Facebook Subscribe. The border leaf switch runs MP-BGP EVPN on the inside with the other VTEPs in the VXLAN fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them. Facility ratings are based on Availability Classes, from 1 to 4. This scoping allows potential overlap in MAC and IP addresses between tenants. Between the aggregation routers and access switches, Spanning Tree Protocol is used to build a loop-free topology for the Layer 2 part of network. We will review codes, design standards, and operational standards. If no oversubscription occurs between the lower-tier switches and their uplinks, then a nonblocking architecture can be achieved. This approach keeps latency at a predictable level because a payload only has to hop to a spine switch and another leaf switch to reach its destination. There are also many operational standards to choose from. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). Learn more about our thought leaders and innovative projects for a variety of market sectors ranging from Corporate Commercial to Housing, Pre-K – 12 to Higher Education, Healthcare to Science & Technology (including automotive, data centers and crime laboratories). Ideally, you should map one VXLAN segment to one IP multicast group to provide optimal multicast forwarding. VXLAN uses a 24-bit segment ID, or VNID, which enables up to 16 million VXLAN segments to coexist in the same administrative domain. The three major data center design and infrastructure standards developed for the industry include: This standard develops a performance-based methodology for the data center during the design, construction, and commissioning phases to determine the resiliency of the facility with respect to four Tiers or levels of redundancy/reliability. The VXLAN VTEP uses a list of IP addresses of other VTEPS in the network to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane. However, the spine switch needs to run the BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing and the VXLAN VTEP function. In MP-BGP EVPN, any VTEP in a VNI can be the distributed anycast gateway for end hosts in its IP subnet by supporting the same virtual gateway IP address and the virtual gateway MAC address (shown in Figure 16). There are two types of components − 1. In fact, according to Moore’s Law (named after the co-founder of Intel, Gordon Moore), computing power doubles every few years. With IP multicast enabled in the underlay network, each VXLAN segment, or VNID, is mapped to an IP multicast group in the transport IP network. Facility operations, maintenance, and procedures will be the final topics for the series. The standard breaks down as follows: Government regulations for data centers will depend on the nature of the business and can include HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), SOX (Sarbanes Oxley) 2002, SAS 70 Type I or II, GLBA (Gramm-Leach Bliley Act), as well as new regulations that may be implemented depending on the nature of your business and the present security situation. Underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature is used to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. Encapsulation format and standards compliance. TRM is based on a standards-based next-generation control plane (ngMVPN) described in IETF RFC 6513 and 6514. The three major data center design and infrastructure standards developed for the industry include:Uptime Institute's Tier StandardThis standard develops a performance-based methodology for the data center during the design, construction, and commissioning phases to determine the resiliency of the facility with respect to four Tiers or levels of redundancy/reliability. Fidelity is opening a new data center in Nebraska this fall. The data center architecture specifies where and how the server, storage networking, racks and other data center resources will be physically placed. Up to four FabricPath anycast gateways can be enabled in the design with routing at the border leaf. Spine devices are responsible for learning infrastructure routes and end-host subnet routes. The architecture consists of core routers, aggregation routers (sometimes called distribution routers), and access switches. Join millions of people using Oodle to find unique job listings, employment offers, part time jobs, and employment news. The original Layer 2 frame is encapsulated with a VXLAN header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across an IP network. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. Internal and external routed traffic needs to travel one underlay hop from the leaf VTEP to the spine switch to be routed. The Cisco Nexus 9000 Series introduced an ingress replication feature, so the underlay network is multicast free. Because the gateway IP address and virtual MAC address are identically provisioned on all VTEPs in a VNI, when an end host moves from one VTEP to another VTEP, it doesn’t need to send another ARP request to relearn the gateway MAC address. From client-inclusive idea generation to collaborative community engagement, Shive-Hattery is grounded in the belief that design-thinking is a … After traffic is routed to the destination VLAN, then it is forwarded using the multidestination tree in the destination VLAN. To support multitenancy, the same VLAN can be reused on different VTEP switches, and IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames received on VTEPs are mapped to specific VNIs. vPC eliminates the spanning-tree blocked ports, provides active-active uplink from the access switches to the aggregation routers, and makes full use of the available bandwidth, as shown in Figure 2. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network multitenancy, Cisco VXLAN MP BGP-EVPN spine-and-leaf network summary. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn network characteristics, (Note: Ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches), (static, Open Shortest Path First [OSPF], IS-IS, External BGP [eBGP], etc.). The entire purpose of designing a data center revolves around maximum utilization of IT resources for the sake of boosted efficiency, improved sales, and operational costs and fewer environmental effects. As shown in the design for internal and external routing at the border leaf in Figure 7, the spine switch functions as the Layer 2 FabricPath switch and performs intra-VLAN FabricPath frame switching only. But it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. It is clear from past history that code minimum is not the best practice. It is arranged as a guide for data center design, construction, and operation. Data center architecture and engineering firm Integrated Design Group is merging with national firm HED in a deal that illustrates the rising profile for the data center industry. Table 3. Could Nvidia’s $40B Arm Gamble Get Stuck at the Edge? A data accessoror a collection of independent components that operate on the central data store, perform computations, and might put back the results. This helps ensure infrastructure is deployed consistently in a single data center or across multiple data centers, while also helping to reduce costs and the time employees spend maintaining it. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any IGP of choice. FabricPath links (switch-port mode: fabricpath) carry VN-segment tagged frames for VLANs that have VXLAN network identifiers (VNIs) defined. The traditional data center uses a three-tier architecture, with servers segmented into pods based on location, as shown in Figure 1. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets are more pronounced. The spine layer is the backbone of the network and is responsible for interconnecting all leaf switches. The Layer 3 routing function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. It uses FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation. Cisco FabricPath network characteristics, FabricPath (MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation), Flood and learn plus conversational learning, Flood by FabricPath IS-IS multidestination tree. On each FabricPath leaf switch, the network keeps the 4096 VLAN spaces, but across the whole FabricPath network, it can support up to 16 million VN-segments, at least in theory. If the spine-and-leaf network has more than four spine switches, the Layer 2 and Layer 3 boundary needs to be distributed across the spine switches. Spine switches are performing intra-VLAN FabricPath frame switching. A legacy mindset in data center architecture revolves around the notion of “design now, deploy later.” The approach to creating a versatile, digital-ready data center must involve the deployment of infrastructure during the design session. In 2010, Cisco introduced virtual-port-channel (vPC) technology to overcome the limitations of Spanning Tree Protocol. Hosts attached to remote VTEPs are learned remotely through the MP-BGP control plane. These formats include Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN), Network Virtualization Using Generic Routing Encapsulation (NVGRE), Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL), and Location/Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP). The key is to choose a standard and follow it. For a FabricPath network, the FabricPath IS-IS control plane by default creates two multidestination trees that carry broadcast traffic, unknown unicast traffic, and multicast traffic through the FabricPath network. The VXLAN flood-and-learn network is a Layer 2 overlay network, and Layer 3 SVIs are laid on top of the Layer 2 overlay network. FabricPath is a Layer 2 network fabric technology, which allows you to easily scale the network capacity simply by adding more spine nodes and leaf nodes at Layer 2. VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN supports overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic using underlay IP multicast or the ingress replication feature. Table 2. Environments of this scale have a unique set of network requirements, with an emphasis on application performance, network simplicity and stability, visibility, easy troubleshooting and easy life cycle management, etc. Table 4. Internal and external routing on the border leaf. With this design, tenant traffic needs to take two underlay hops (VTEP to spine to border leaf) to reach the external network. This traffic needs to be handled efficiently, with low and predictable latency. Moreover, scalability is another major issue in three-tier DCN. Data center design is the process of modeling an,.l designing (Jochim 2017) a data center's IT resources, architectural layout and entire ilfrastructure. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets become more pronounced. Its control-plane protocol, FabricPath IS-IS, is designed to determine FabricPath switch ID reachability information. This revolutionary technology created a need for a larger Layer 2 domain, from the access layer to the core layer, as shown in Figure 3. VerifythateachendsystemresolvesthevirtualgatewayMACaddressforasubnet usingthegatewayIRBaddressonthecentralgateways(spinedevices). External routing with border spine design. Layer 2 multitenancy example with FabricPath VN-Segment feature. The path is randomly chosen so that the traffic load is evenly distributed among the top-tier switches. The spine switch can also be configured to send EVPN routes learned in the Layer 2 VPN EVPN address family to the IPv4 or IPv6 unicast address family and advertise them to the external routing device. It also addresses how these resources/devices will be interconnected and how physical and logical security workflows are arranged. These are the VN-segment edge ports. Cisco introduced FabricPath technology in 2010. The higher layers of the three-tier DCN are highly oversubscribed. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network. The data center is at the foundation of modern software technology, serving a critical role in expanding capabilities for enterprises. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. For more details regarding MSDC designs with Cisco Nexus 9000 and 3000 switches, please refer “Cisco’s Massively Scalable Data Center Network Fabric White Paper”. DCP_2047.JPG 1/6 For more information on Cisco Network Insights, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/data-center-analytics/network-insights-data-center/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 multitenancy using Virtual Routing and Forwarding lite (VRF-lite), as shown in Figure 9. VN-segments are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. At the same time, it runs the normal IPv4 or IPv6 unicast routing in the tenant VRF instances with the external routing device on the outside. The data center design is built on a supported layered approach, which has been verified and improved over the past several years in some of the major data center employments in the world. Internal and external routing at the border leaf. About the author: Steven Shapiro has been in the mission critical industry since 1988 and has a diverse background in the study, reporting, design, commissioning, development and management of reliable electrical distribution, emergency power, lighting, and fire protection systems for high tech environments. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper. The maximum number of inter-VXLAN active-active gateways is two with an HSRP and vPC configuration. It delivers tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic in an efficient and resilient way. TIA uses tables within the standard to easily identify the ratings for telecommunications, architectural, electrical, and mechanical systems. A data center floor plan includes the layout of the boundaries of the room (or rooms) and the layout of IT equipment within the room. Don't miss what's happening in your neighborhood. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. Your facility must meet the business mission. In most cases, the spine switch is not used to directly connect to the outside world or to other MSDC networks, but it will forward such traffic to specialized leaf switches acting as border leaf switches. As shown in the design for internal and external routing at the border spine in Figure 6, the spine switch functions as the Layer 2 and Layer 3 boundary and server subnet gateway. However, Spanning Tree Protocol cannot use parallel forwarding paths, and it always blocks redundant paths in a VLAN. Best practices ensure that you are doing everything possible to keep it that way. (2) Tenant Routed Multicast (TRM) for Cisco Nexus 9000 Cloud Scale Series Switches. VLANs are extended within each pod that servers can move freely within the pod without the need to change IP address and default gateway configurations. Cisco’s MSDC topology design uses a Layer 3 spine-and-leaf architecture. In MP-BGP EVPN, multiple tenants can co-exist and share a common IP transport network while having their own separate VPNs in the VXLAN overlay network (Figure 19). The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco but is based on the TRILL standard. For feature support and for more information about Cisco FabricPath technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. The Layer 2 overlay network is created on top of the Layer 3 IP underlay network by using the VTEP tunneling mechanism to transport Layer 2 packets. The external routing function is centralized on specific switches. It is designed to simplify, optimize, and automate the modern multitenancy data center fabric environment. Although the concept of a network overlay is not new, interest in network overlays has increased in the past few years because of their potential to address some of these requirements. The multi-tier approach includes web, application, and database tiers of servers. The spine switch runs MP-BGP EVPN on the inside with the other VTEPs in the VXLAN fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them. Modern virtualized data center fabrics must meet certain requirements to accelerate application deployment and support DevOps needs. Examples of MSDCs are large cloud service providers that host thousands of tenants, and web portal and e-commerce providers that host large distributed applications. ● It provides VTEP peer discovery and authentication, mitigating the risk from rogue VTEPs in the VXLAN overlay network. The placement of a Layer 3 function in a FabricPath network needs to be carefully designed. Two Cisco Network Insights applications are supported: ● Cisco Network Insights - Advisor (NIA): monitors the data center network and pinpoints issues that can be addressed to maintain availability and reduce surprise outages. Figure 20 shows an example of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network with an eBGP control plane (AS = autonomous system). ), ● Border spine switch for external routing, (Note: The spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing on hardware. NIA constantly scans the customer’s network and provides proactive advice with a focus on maintaining availability and alerting customers about potential issues that can impact uptime. ● It provides optimal forwarding for east-west and north-south traffic and supports workload mobility with the distributed anycast function on each ToR switch. Following appropriate codes and standards would seem to be an obvious direction when designing new or upgrading an existing data center. ● Fabric scalability and flexibility: Overlay technologies allow the network to scale by focusing scaling on the network overlay edge devices. Intel RSD is an implementation specification enabling interoperability across hardware and software vendors. Today, most web-based applications are built as multi-tier applications. The Azure Architecture Center provides best practices for running your workloads on Azure. The three-tier is the common network architecture used in data centers. With this design, the spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing. Depending on the number of servers that need to be supported, there are different flavors of MSDC designs: two-tiered spine-leaf topology, three-tiered spine-leaf topology, hyperscale fabric plane Clos design. It has modules on all the major sub-systems of a mission critical facility and their interdependencies, including power, cooling, compute and network. As in a traditional VLAN environment, routing between VXLAN segments or from a VXLAN segment to a VLAN segment is required in many situations. TOP 25 DATA CENTER ARCHITECTURE FIRMS RANK COMPANY 2016 DATA CENTER REVENUE 1 Jacobs $58,960,000 2 Corgan $38,890,000 3 Gensler $23,000,000 4 HDR $14,913,721 5 Page $14,500,000 6 Sheehan Partners Top 25 data center architecture firms | Building Design + Construction https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/sites/datacenterknowledge.com/files/logos/DCK_footer.png, The choice of standards should be driven by the organization’s business mission, Top500: Japan’s Fugaku Still the World’s Fastest Supercomputer, Intel’s Ice Lake Chips to Enable Confidential Computing on Data Center-Grade Servers. Many MSDC customers write scripts to make network changes, using Python, Puppet and Chef, and other DevOps tools and Cisco technologies such as Power-On Auto Provisioning (POAP). Note that the ingress replication feature is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. The Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for VXLAN. It extends Layer 2 segments over a Layer 3 infrastructure to build Layer 2 overlay logical networks. Hyperscale users and increased demand have turned data into the new utility, making quicker, leaner facilities a must. The VTEP then distributes this information through the MP-BGP EVPN control plane. Layer 3 IP multicast traffic is forwarded by Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing. For feature support and more information about TRM, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. The Layer 3 internal routed traffic is routed directly by a distributed anycast gateway on each ToR switch in a scale-out fashion. The origins of the Uptime Institute as a data center users group established it as the first group to measure and compare a data center’s reliability. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. The MP-BGP EVPN control plane provides integrated routing and bridging by distributing both Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information for the end host residing in the VXLAN overlay network. A data center is going to probably be the most expensive facility your company ever builds or operates. Border leaf switches can inject default routes to attract traffic intended for external destinations. Many aspects of this standard reflect the UI, TIA, and BCSI standards. This technology provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. If device port capacity becomes a concern, a new leaf switch can be added by connecting it to every spine switch and adding the network configuration to the switch. They must also play an active role in manageability and operations of the data center. An edge or leaf device can optimize its functions and all its relevant protocols based on end-state information and scale, and a core or spine device can optimize its functions and protocols based on link-state updates, optimizing with fast convergence. These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the static ingress replication configuration (Figure 10). In the VXLAN flood-and-learn mode defined in RFC 7348, end-host information learning and VTEP discovery are both data-plane based, with no control protocol to distribute end-host reachability information among the VTEPs. The impact of broadcast and unknown unicast traffic flooding needs to be carefully considered in the FabricPath network design. The control-plane learns end-host Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information (MAC and IP addresses) and distributes this information through the EVPN address family, thus providing integrated bridging and routing in VXLAN overlay networks. The border leaf switch can also be configured to send EVPN routes learned in the Layer 2 VPN EVPN address family to the IPv4 or IPv6 unicast address family and advertise them to the external routing device. This architecture has been proven to deliver the high-bandwidth, low-latency, nonblocking server-to-server connectivity. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn technology complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348), which defined a multicast-based flood-and-learn VXLAN without a control plane. Routed traffic needs to traverse only one hop to reach to default gateway at the spine switches to be routed. Internal and external routing at the border spine. Each section outlines the most important technology components (encapsulation; end-host detection and distribution; broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast traffic forwarding; underlay and overlay control plane, multitenancy support, etc. The Certified Data Centre Design Professional (CDCDP®) program is proven to be an essential certification for individuals wishing to demonstrate their technical knowledge of data centre architecture and component operating conditions. Layer 3 multitenancy example using VRF-lite, Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network summary. 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