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what is the capital of germany

There are many lakes, forests, parks, gardens, and canals that are present in this place. The Fernsehturm (TV tower) at Alexanderplatz in Mitte is among the tallest structures in the European Union at 368 m (1,207 ft). Facing the Chancellery is the Bundestag, the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government's relocation to Berlin in 1998. It also has Germany's busiest airport and is the seat of European Central Bank - the central bank of the Euro. 55 terms. [91][failed verification] The entire Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has a population of more than 6 million in an area of 30,546 km2 (11,794 sq mi). In the 1990s the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of some residents from the former Soviet Union. [172] Cyclists have access to 620 km (385 mi) of bicycle paths including approximately 150 km (93 mi) of mandatory bicycle paths, 190 km (118 mi) of off-road bicycle routes, 60 km (37 mi) of bicycle lanes on roads, 70 km (43 mi) of shared bus lanes which are also open to cyclists, 100 km (62 mi) of combined pedestrian/bike paths and 50 km (31 mi) of marked bicycle lanes on roadside pavements (or sidewalks). The wireless networks are concentrated mostly in central districts; 650 hotspots (325 indoor and 325 outdoor access points) are installed. [128] The Federal Foreign Office and the ministries and departments of Defence, Justice and Consumer Protection, Finance, Interior, Economic Affairs and Energy, Labour and Social Affairs, Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Food and Agriculture, Economic Cooperation and Development, Health, Transport and Digital Infrastructure and Education and Research are based in the capital. [134] The city has a 6-year primary education program. The Schaubühne was founded in 1962 and moved to the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kurfürstendamm in 1981. The Hamburger Bahnhof, in Moabit, exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. Telenor Answer all the questions correctly to win Telenor daily 50 MB And … The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences. [90][failed verification] The urban agglomeration of the metropolis was home to about 4.5 million in an area of 5,370 km2 (2,070 sq mi). Today ethnic Germans from countries of the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community. [73][72], Due to its transitional climate zones, frosts are common in winter and there are larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name: Pankow (the most populous), Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau (named Spandow until 1878). Due to the influence and international partnerships of the Federal Republic of Germany, the capital city has become a significant centre of German and European affairs. [38] Frederick William, known as the "Great Elector", who had succeeded his father George William as ruler in 1640, initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious tolerance. Bonn was the capital of West Germany and Berlin was the capital of East Germany. [155] Berlin is number 8 at the Global Power City Index. [21] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics. [115] The total annual state budget of Berlin in 2015 exceeded €24.5 ($30.0) billion including a budget surplus of €205 ($240) million. Polish, English, Russian, and Vietnamese have more native speakers in East Berlin. Around 130,000 jobs were added in this period. Attractions in the city include the Berlin Fashion Week, Museum Island and the Jewish Museum. Located in north eastern Germany, in the east of Elbe River is, Berlin – the capital and the largest city of Germany. [218] Berlin is also well known for the cultural festival, Berliner Festspiele, which includes the jazz festival JazzFest Berlin. [75] Annual precipitation is 570 millimetres (22 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. 2. In 1701, the dual state formed the Kingdom of Prussia, as Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, crowned himself as king Frederick I in Prussia. Since 2017, the digital television standard in Berlin and Germany is DVB-T2. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. [citation needed] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed during 1943–45 Allied air raids and the 1945 Battle of Berlin. Vehicles were registered under the following prefixes: "I A" (1906 – April 1945; devalidated on 11 August 1945); no prefix, only digits (from July to August 1945), "БГ" (=BG; 1945–46, for cars, lorries and busses), "ГФ" (=GF; 1945–46, for cars, lorries and busses), "БM" (=BM; 1945–47, for motor bikes), "ГM" (=GM; 1945–47, for motor bikes), "KB" (i.e. [134], Berlin is one of the knowledge and innovation communities (KIC) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT). In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. [48] In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire. Germany’s division after the war put Berlin entirely within the territory of the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany). [citation needed]. [76] The hottest month in Berlin was July 1834, with a mean temperature of 23.0 °C (73.4 °F) and the coldest was January 1709, with a mean temperature of −13.2 °C (8.2 °F). [71][72] This type of climate features moderate summer temperatures but sometimes hot (for being semicontinental) and cold winters but not rigorous most of the time. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Elbe, that once constituted, together with the River (Saxon or Thuringian) Saale (from their confluence at Barby onwards), the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. My Telenor Daily 5 questions you have select answers from giving 4 options on my Telenor. The Konzerthaus (Concert Hall), home of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, stands between the two cathedrals. [252] Berlin is the largest Olympic training centre in Germany. Recovery and growth for the city occurred in the 18th century when it became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia under Frederick III. [10] The city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects. Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries. [254] The team represented Berlin as a founding member of the Bundesliga, Germany's highest football league, in 1963. The SOUND and the Dschungel gained notoriety. The Museum Island in the River Spree houses five museums built from 1830 to 1930 and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification but later partially reestablished. The borough's mayors make up the council of mayors (Rat der Bürgermeister), which is led by the city's Governing Mayor and advises the Senate. In 2014, 67 airlines served 163 destinations in 50 countries from Berlin. The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. [121] Town twinning between Berlin and other cities began with its sister city Los Angeles in 1967. Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20th century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served. The Straße des 17. Germany after World War II. Berlin, the capital of Germany is worth a visit. [181] The John F. Kennedy School, a bilingual German–American public school in Zehlendorf, is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking expatriate community. [171] It is estimated Berlin has 710 bicycles per 1000 residents. It is the second most populous city and the ninth most populous urban area in the European Union. Berlin serves as one of the leading tourist destinations for its rich historical heritage and there many museums and other historical centers. More than half of all German Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, including Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich, have worked at the Charité. This is why most of the cities and villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names (Germania Slavica). The relocation of the federal government and Bundestag to Berlin was mostly completed in 1999, however some ministries as well as some minor departments stayed in the federal city Bonn, the former capital of West Germany. Berlin will host the 2023 Special Olympics World Summer Games. Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish and Serbo-Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities. Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. The start-up share capital for a GmbH is 25,000 euros from which at least 12,500 euros must be deposited upon incorporation. Archaeological evidence shows signs of human habitation as early as the 9th millennium BC. [116] The state owns extensive assets, including administrative and government buildings, real estate companies, as well as stakes in the Olympic Stadium, swimming pools, housing companies, and numerous public enterprises and subsidiary companies.[117][118]. [22] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts and a very high quality of living. [231][232] German bakeries offering a variety of breads and pastries are widespread. German is one of 24 languages of the European Union,[102] and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. The Berlin 380-kV electric line is the backbone of the city's energy grid. It functioned as the provisional seat of government of reunited Germany until 1999, when most of the government moved to BerlinBerlin , city (1994 pop. The city of Berlin also serves as a center for transport, communication, and entertainment. [47], The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[57]. [66], Berlin is in northeastern Germany, in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography, part of the vast Northern European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. Hamburg 2. Present-day Saxony is composed largely of hill and mountain country, with only its northernmost portions and the area around Leipzig descending into the great North European Plain. Berliners would achieve seven gold, twelve silver and three bronze medals.[253]. By the 1920s, gays and lesbians had an unprecedented visibility. Generating a revenue of 15.6 billion Euro and 6% of all private economic sales, the culture industry grew from 2009 to 2014 at an average rate of 5.5% per year.[150]. die Bewährung. [94] The last decade experienced an influx from various Western countries and some African regions. 5,422 km (3,369 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 77 km (48 mi) are motorways (Autobahn). In most of the inner districts of Berlin power lines are underground cables; only a 380 kV and a 110 kV line, which run from Reuter substation to the urban Autobahn, use overhead lines. A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which flows through the Großer Müggelsee in eastern Berlin.[67]. [229][230], Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes. After the royal palace was finished in 1451, it gradually came into use. [140] In 2015, Berlin generated the most venture capital for young startup companies in Europe. After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule (a comprehensive school) or Gymnasium (college preparatory school). Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. Boris the Baptist, one of the two seats of the Bulgarian Orthodox Diocese of Western and Central Europe, and the Resurrection of Christ Cathedral of the Diocese of Berlin (Patriarchate of Moscow). [39] With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the French Huguenots. [96] Young Germans, EU-Europeans and Israelis have also settled in the city. speech, is in Tempelhof-Schöneberg. Approximately halfway from the Brandenburg Gate is the Großer Stern, a circular traffic island on which the Siegessäule (Victory Column) is situated. [134] Prefixes for vehicle registration were introduced in 1906, but often changed due to the political changes after 1945. [88] To the west of Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, which houses the Gemäldegalerie, and is flanked by the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Berliner Philharmonie. [58] On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the withdrawal of allied occupation troops allowing a reunified Berlin[59] (the last Russian troops departed on 31 August, while the final departure of Western Allies forces was on 8 September 1994). The Gemäldegalerie (Painting Gallery) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) specializes in 20th-century European painting. [180], The Französisches Gymnasium Berlin, which was founded in 1689 to teach the children of Huguenot refugees, offers (German/French) instruction. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. The area around Potsdam in particular Sanssouci is known for a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks. [208] The Berlin Wall itself has become one of the largest open-air canvasses in the world. [178] The Charité is a joint institution of the Freie Universität Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin, including a wide range of institutes and specialized medical centers. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June 1953. [151] It is home to more than 1,000 film and television production companies, 270 movie theaters, and around 300 national and international co-productions are filmed in the region every year. Berlin was devastated by air raids, fires and street battles during the Second World War, and many of the buildings that had survived in both East and West, were demolished during the post-war period. [28] 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The Charité complex (Universitätsklinik Charité) is the largest university hospital in Europe, tracing back its origins to the year 1710. The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer. [173] Riders are allowed to carry their bicycles on Regionalbahn, S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains, on trams, and on night buses if a bike ticket is purchased. With a population of 3.4 million in its city limits, Berlin is the country's largest city. [95] A portion of the African immigrants have settled in the Afrikanisches Viertel. [224] The Kookaburra and the Quatsch Comedy Club are known for satire and stand-up comedy shows. The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges (Hochschulen), offering a wide range of disciplines. Berlin’s location at the intersection of early trade routes made it one of the most important commercial centers of the time. Area of Berlin is 891.1 Square Kilometres. Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations. The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens (built in 1895). About 500 top athletes (15% of all German top athletes) are based there. [45] Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, Berlin was also reunified and re-established as the political capital of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its two main locations are on Potsdamer Straße and on Unter den Linden. [2] The government keeps a register of members of these churches for tax purposes, because it collects church tax on behalf of the churches. As of 2014[update], Berlin had 878 schools, teaching 340,658 children in 13,727 classes and 56,787 trainees in businesses and elsewhere. The Neues Museum, which displays the bust of Queen Nefertiti,[202] Alte Nationalgalerie, Pergamon Museum, and Bode Museum were built there. [184] A record number of 175,651 students were enrolled in the winter term of 2015/16. After 1949 the system was split in two separated networks. Walter Momper, the mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city in the interim. [106] According to the Berlin residents register, in 2018 14.9 percent were members of the Evangelical Church, and 8.5 percent were members of the Catholic Church. On 20 June 1991, the Bundestag (German Parliament) voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. In addition around 20 news agencies, more than 90 regional daily newspapers and their websites, as well as the Berlin offices of more than 22 national publications such as Der Spiegel, and Die Zeit re-enforce the capital's position as Germany's epicenter for influential debate. The Funkturm Berlin is a 150-metre-tall (490 ft) lattice radio tower in the fairground area, built between 1924 and 1926. The largest religious denomination recorded in 2010 was the Protestant regional church body—the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO)—a United church. With the raising of the German flag on October 3, 1990, the two former countries (the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany) merged to become one unified Germany. A Vote to Decide the Capital . [234] Asian cuisine like Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, Indian, Korean, and Japanese restaurants, as well as Spanish tapas bars, Italian, and Greek cuisine, can be found in many parts of the city. [222] Simon Rattle is its principal conductor. Rio de Janeiro was the country's capital between 1763 and 1960. The council is elected by the borough assembly (Bezirksverordnetenversammlung). Among them are the German Heart Center, one of the most renowned transplantation centers, the Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine and the Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Genetics. The Admiralspalast in Mitte has a vibrant program of variety and music events. The Charité Medical School has around 8,000 students. Study sets. The largest visitor groups are from Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and the United States. probation. Both airports together handled 29.5 million passengers in 2015. Through the disposal of construction debris they surpassed Teufelsberg (120.1 m or 394 ft), which itself was made up of rubble from the ruins of the Second World War. The cityscape of Berlin displays large quantities of urban street art. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement. bôn), city (1994 pop. [12] Berlin in the 1920s was the third-largest municipality in the world. The Bundesrat ("federal council", performing the function of an upper house) is the representation of the federal states (Bundesländer) of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian House of Lords. [31], In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power. Berlin is located in northern Germany, the sandy region between the Spree and Havel rivers. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree, Havel, and Dahme rivers (the largest of which is Lake Müggelsee). Berlin is home to world-renowned universities such as the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (HU Berlin), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin), the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University of Berlin), the Universität der Künste (University of the Arts, UdK), ESMT Berlin and the Berlin School of Economics and Law. First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes,[11] Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417–1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933), and the Third Reich (1933–1945). Other landmarks include the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag building, Potsdamer Platz, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the Berlin Wall Memorial, the East Side Gallery, the Berlin Victory Column, Berlin Cathedral and the Berlin Television Tower, the tallest structure in Germany. das Delikt. [154] Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Berlin number 21 of all global cities. In 2012, around 7,600 mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service. If you want to find the capital of Germany on … Capitals of European states and territories. The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society, the Leibniz Association, the Helmholtz Association, and the Max Planck Society, which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[54]. Between 1949 - 1990 Bonn used to be West Germany's capital. Berlin is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Berlin and EKBO's elected chairperson is titled the bishop of EKBO. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Located in Mitte, KW Institute for Contemporary Art, KOW, Sprüth Magers; Kreuzberg there are a few galleries as well such as Blain Southern, Esther Schipper, Future Gallery, König Gallerie. [199] In 2005, Berlin was named "City of Design" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network ever since.[200][20]. 1990: On German reunification, the reunited city of Berlin and the territory of the former German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic as six new states. The Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree river is Berlin's most iconic bridge, connecting the now-combined boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. [160] A total of 979 bridges cross 197 km (122 mi) of inner-city waterways. Berlin was one of the leading cities in science, technology, film, arts, and humanities as well as higher education during the 20th century. [53] After the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church has eight parishes of different sizes in Berlin. Each of which publish books, periodicals, and multimedia products. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in 1963, underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. As of 2015[update] the five largest power plants measured by capacity are the Heizkraftwerk Reuter West, the Heizkraftwerk Lichterfelde, the Heizkraftwerk Mitte, the Heizkraftwerk Wilmersdorf, and the Heizkraftwerk Charlottenburg. It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience. This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated in 1938–39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag. The office of the Governing Mayor is in the Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall). National and international migration into the city has a long history. [245] The city hosted the Basketball Euroleague Final Four in 2009 and 2016. Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany. [34][35] This protest was not successful and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. Berlin has three major opera houses: the Deutsche Oper, the Berlin State Opera, and the Komische Oper. There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. The ministries and the Bundesrat are also located within the city. It is also the most populous city of EU. [134] The Deutsches Theater in Mitte was built in 1849–50 and has operated almost continuously since then. Friedrichstraße was Berlin's legendary street during the Golden Twenties. The unemployment rate reached a 24-year low in November 2015 and stood at 10.0% . East Berlin included most of the city's historic centre. Berlin is in Germany. Berlin has installed several hundred free public Wireless LAN sites across the capital since 2016. [176] The modern history of medicine has been significantly influenced by scientists from Berlin. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues. A city of west-central Germany on the Rhine River. [243] The city hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and was the host city for the 2006 FIFA World Cup final. Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system. City that it took heavy impact in world wars, It most reflects to hug history. It is one of the important federal states. [246] and was one of the hosts of the FIBA EuroBasket 2015. The chief mountain range is the Ore Mountains and the capital is Dresden. The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace. The Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute develops mobile and stationary broadband communication networks and multimedia systems. It originates from a Mark Brandenburgish variant. Answer : Berlin . [108] In 2019, about 437,000 registered residents, 11.6% of the total, reported having a migration background from one of the Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Albert the Bear, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, founded Berlin in around 1157. West Berlin's partnerships had previously been restricted to the borough level. The city is also home of the German Film Academy (Deutsche Filmakademie), founded in 2003, and the European Film Academy, founded in 1988. The three largest universities combined have approximately 103,000 enrolled students. The West Berlin system in operation and open for public use until 1963, and for government use until 1972. [99] Berlin in 2009 was estimated to have 100,000 to 250,000 non-registered inhabitants. With an area of 344.3 square miles, Berlin, Germany’s capital, is the largest city in the country. Berlin's 2001 administrative reform merged several boroughs, reducing their number from 23 to 12. [197] An innovative music, dance and art scene has developed in the 21st century. The total annual federal budget managed by the German government exceeded €310 ($375) billion in 2013. It does not keep records of members of other religious organizations which may collect their own church tax, in this way. Berlin has established a high-profile as a host city of major international sporting events. [40], By 1700, approximately 30 percent of Berlin's residents were French, because of the Huguenot immigration. Berlin maintains official partnerships with 17 cities. After the division of Germany into East and West Germany, Berlin was also divided into East and West Berlin. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949. The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. [136] Within the Eurozone, Berlin has become a center for business relocation and international investments. [29] The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. In 2015 Berlin became the venue for the UEFA Champions League Final. It carries vehicles, pedestrians, and the U1 Berlin U-Bahn line. However, the seat of government remained in Bonn, which had been the “provisional” capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990. Forty-seven elite athletes participated in the 2012 Summer Olympics. There are the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University of Berlin, FU Berlin) with about 33,000[186] students, the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (HU Berlin) with 35,000[187] students, and the Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin) with 35,000[188] students. [25][196] The diversity and vivacity of the metropolis led to a trendsetting atmosphere. Furthermore, Berlin is classified as a temperate continental climate (Dc) under the Trewartha climate scheme, as well as the suburbs of New York City, although the Köppen system puts them in different types. [30] The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. [101], There are more than 20 non-indigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Chinese, Austrian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities. Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology. It is the only observation tower which stands on insulators and has a restaurant 55 m (180 ft) and an observation deck 126 m (413 ft) above ground, which is reachable by a windowed elevator. Berlin has a long history of gay culture, and is an important birthplace of the LGBT rights movement. In 1861, neighbouring suburbs including Wedding, Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. The KitKatClub and several other locations are known for their sexually uninhibited parties. The oldest and most popular division-1 team based in Berlin is the football club Hertha BSC. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte,[27] and a wooden beam dated from approximately 1192. 296,860), former capital of West Germany, North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, on the Rhine River. Both offer electric power and natural gas supply. All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. In 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France, the city responded with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km2,[9] Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. [201] The ensemble on the Museum Island is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is in the northern part of the Spree Island between the Spree and the Kupfergraben. The German limited liability company (GmbH) is the most common business vehicle due to the simple incorporation procedure and the minimum share capital requirements. The Brücke Museum features one of the largest collection of works by artist of the early 20th-century expressionist movement. Regional rail lines of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea. [74], Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and lows of 12–14 °C (54–57 °F). West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move the western powers did not recognize. The Berlin State Opera on Unter den Linden opened in 1742 and is the oldest of the three. The bridge was completed in a brick gothic style in 1896, replacing the former wooden bridge, with an upper deck for the U-Bahn. Zoologischer Garten Berlin, the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in 1844. Unter den Linden is a tree-lined east–west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade. Berlin was significantly destroyed by the Thirty Years’ War between 1618 and 1648. In 1443, Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. [249] A Fan Fest at Brandenburg Gate, which attracts several hundred-thousand spectators, has become popular during international football competitions, like the UEFA European Championship. [219][220] Every year Berlin hosts one of the largest New Year's Eve celebrations in the world, attended by well over a million people. Its musical director is Daniel Barenboim. [179] Deutsche Bahn is planning to introduce Wi-Fi services in long distance and regional trains in 2017. … [110], About 0.9% of Berliners belong to other religions. Berlin is also the headquarter of major German-language publishing houses like Walter de Gruyter, Springer, the Ullstein Verlagsgruppe (publishing group), Suhrkamp and Cornelsen are all based in Berlin. Treptower Park, beside the Spree in Treptow, features a large Soviet War Memorial. [153], According to Monocle, Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world. Since 2014 this office has been held by Michael Müller of the Social Democrats.[120]. The ministries and the Bundesrat are also located within the city. The growth continued into the 20th century with new inventions in arts such as architecture, painting, and theater. The sector comprises music, film, advertising, architecture, art, design, fashion, performing arts, publishing, R&D, software,[149] TV, radio, and video games. It is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Login into Amazon with mobile number or email. Berlin's nightlife has been celebrated as one of the most diverse and vibrant of its kind. It is the second most populous city and the ninth most populous urban area in the European Union. Despite being infamous for the Berlin Wall of the late 20th century, Berlin is one of the most frequented cities in the European Union, attracting millions of visitors annually. As you will no doubt know Germany was the leading country in the events of World War II. All of these power stations generate electricity and useful heat at the same time to facilitate buffering during load peaks. [49] In 1881, it became a city district separate from Brandenburg.[50]. [166] Previously set to open in 2012, after extensive delays and cost overruns, it opened for commercial operations in October 2020. [77] The wettest month on record was July 1907, with 230 millimetres (9.1 in) of rainfall, whereas the driest were October 1866, November 1902, October 1908 and September 1928, all with 1 millimetre (0.039 in) of rainfall.[78]. The Pharmaceuticals division of Bayer[145] and Berlin Chemie are major pharmaceutical companies in the city. The Kurfürstendamm is home to some of Berlin's luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz. In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. [241], Berlin is also well known for its numerous cafés, street musicians, beach bars along the Spree River, flea markets, boutique shops and pop up stores, which are a source for recreation and leisure.[242]. How To Play Wheel Of Fortune Spin Quiz. [8] The city is also one of Germany's 16 federal states. Following the war, the nation saw a period of Allied occupation as Europe began to rebuild. The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Polish, English, Arabic, Italian, Bulgarian, Russian, Romanian, Kurdish, Serbo-Croatian, French, Spanish and Vietnamese. About 95% of the people living in Berlin are of German origin. When this international conflict was over (in 1945 in Europe and in 1948 in the Pacific) the city of Berlin, which was the state capital at that time, was completely destroyed. detainee/prisoner/inmate. [226] Berlin is well known for its offerings of vegetarian[227] and vegan[228] cuisine and is home to an innovative entrepreneurial food scene promoting cosmopolitan flavors, local and sustainable ingredients, pop-up street food markets, supper clubs, as well as food festivals, such as Berlin Food Week. [247], The annual Berlin Marathon – a course that holds the most top-10 world record runs – and the ISTAF are well-established athletic events in the city. Population and area in km² as of November 2014. In 2018, the New York Times described Berlin as "arguably the world capital of underground electronic music". The city is also one of Germany's 16 federal states. EKBO is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) and Union Evangelischer Kirchen (UEK). Capital of Germany. probation officer. 54 percent of them were single-person households. German tribes such as Semnones and Burgundians built villages in modern day Berlin from around 500BC. The neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, and Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus (City Hall), with its distinctive red-brick architecture. Berlin is the most populous city proper in the EU. [146] The city recorded 28.7 million overnight hotel stays and 11.9 million hotel guests in 2014. Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in 1995. Invented in Berlin, currywurst is an icon of German popular culture and cuisine. [137][138], Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city. der/die Bewährungshelfer/in. The center portion was demolished in 1945 to stop the Red Army from crossing. Gerstengarbe FW, Werner PC (2009) A short update on Koeppen climate shifts in Europe between 1901 and 2003. It formed most of the territory that comprises modern Berlin and increased the population from 1.9 million to 4 million. Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new business or residential districts and the main arteries. What is the financial capital of Germany? 1. [167] The planned initial capacity of around 27 million passengers per year[168] is to be further developed to bring the terminal capacity to approximately 55 million per year by 2040.[169]. Berlin is located in northern Germany.. Live Quiz Amazon Philips Shaver Quiz Answers Win Rs.10000 Amazon Pay; Amazon Microsoft Modern PCs Quiz Answers Rs.10000; Amazon Pantry Spin … A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East. The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium. Posted by: Ahtesham 00:02 Post a comment Q1.What is the capital of Germany? It is also the 2 nd most populous country in Europe and the most populous member-state of EU. der/die Bewährungshelfer/in. Munich 3. Focal points are photonic components and systems, fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission. More than 337,000 families with children under the age of 18 lived in Berlin. Berlin was completely divided. Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress. Its Zoological Garden is the most visited zoo in Europe and one of the most popular worldwide. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties. St. Hedwig's Cathedral is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral. [209] The leftover stretch along the Spree river in Friedrichshain remains as the East Side Gallery. Horlemann, Bernd (Hrsg. 01280. Berlin serves as the seat for several religious organizations including the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Berlin and the Cathedral of St. Boris. [147] Some of these congress events take place on venues such as CityCube Berlin or the Berlin Congress Center (bcc). Since 2011, a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved. The Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin are the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. [127], The Federal Chancellery building, seat of the Chancellor of Germany, Schloss Bellevue, seat of the President of Germany, Prussian House of Lords, the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany. [citation needed] As of 2019[update] the functional urban area was home to about 5.2 million people in an area of approximately 15,000 km2 (5,792 sq mi). The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust memorial, is to the north.[89]. Berlin today is consistently rated as an important world city for street art culture. In 2015, the total labour force in Berlin was 1.85 million. Before Germany was united as a whole country, there was two separate places called East Germany and West Germany. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population. The Exberliner, a monthly magazine, is Berlin's English-language periodical and La Gazette de Berlin a French-language newspaper. Berlin has more than 80 mosques,[113] ten synagogues,[114] and two Buddhist temples. [46] In 1815, the city became part of the new Province of Brandenburg. Founded as a Roman garrison in the first century ad, it … [174], From 1865 until 1976 Berlin had an extensive pneumatic postal network, which at its peak in 1940, totalled 400 kilometres length. Berlin is home to many magazine, newspaper, book and scientific/academic publishers, as well as their associated service industries. The annual Berlin Festival focuses on indie rock, electronic music and synthpop and is part of the International Berlin Music Week. [19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. [68] The Müggelberge at 114.7 metres (376 feet) elevation is the highest natural point and the lowest is the Spektesee in Spandau, at 28.1 metres (92 feet) elevation. The dialect is now seen more as a sociolect, largely through increased immigration and trends among the educated population to speak standard German in everyday life. The modern fast food version of the doner kebab sandwich which evolved in Berlin in the 1970s, has since become a favorite dish in Germany and elsewhere in the world. Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten. [6][7] Its 3,769,495 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019[2] make it the most populous city of the European Union, according to population within city limits. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. The Berliner Urstromtal (an ice age glacial valley), between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation. Partygoers in Germany often toast the New Year with a glass of sparkling wine. [240], Potsdam is on the southwestern periphery of Berlin. This will be the first time Germany has ever hosted the Special Olympics World Games. [97], In December 2019, there were 777,345 registered residents of foreign nationality and another 542,975 German citizens with a "migration background" (Migrationshintergrund, MH),[2] meaning they or one of their parents immigrated to Germany after 1955. In addition to the university-affiliated libraries, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major research library. [100] Boroughs of Berlin with a significant number of migrants or foreign born population are Mitte, Neukölln and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. The Deutsche Oper opened in 1912 in Charlottenburg. [207] It has become a significant part of the city's cultural heritage and has its roots in the graffiti scene of Kreuzberg of the 1980s. 1957: The Saar, which was put under French administration after World War II, joined the Federal Republic of Germany as the Saarland. At first download Amazon app from play store. My Telenor test your skills 20 April 2020. Berlin (/bɜːrˈlɪn/; German: [bɛʁˈliːn] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- ("swamp"). It is the seat of the President of Germany, whose official residence is Schloss Bellevue. [194], One of Europe's successful research, business and technology clusters is based at WISTA in Berlin-Adlershof, with more than 1,000 affiliated firms, university departments and scientific institutions.[195]. [161] With 377 cars per 1000 residents in 2013 (570/1000 in Germany), Berlin as a Western global city has one of the lowest numbers of cars per capita. In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. [131] From 2012 to 2015 Berlin, as a German state, had the highest annual employment growth rate. Berlin is an important city both in the past and in modern times having played roles in two major world wars as well as in the Cold War. The faithful of the different religions and denominations maintain many places of worship in Berlin. The Senate consists of the Governing Mayor (Regierender Bürgermeister) and up to ten senators holding ministerial positions, two of them holding the title of "Mayor" (Bürgermeister) as deputy to the Governing Mayor. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. [125], Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in Berlin. In 2009, approximately 249,000 Muslims were reported by the Office of Statistics to be members of Mosques and Islamic religious organizations in Berlin,[107] while in 2016, the newspaper Der Tagesspiegel estimated that about 350,000 Muslims observed Ramadan in Berlin. [51] In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. [41] Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg. probation officer. The Spree follows this valley now. [86][87] Also on the island and next to the Lustgarten and palace is Berlin Cathedral, emperor William II's ambitious attempt to create a Protestant counterpart to St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The annual Berlin International Film Festival (Berlinale) with around 500,000 admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world. Juni, connecting the Brandenburg Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as the central east–west axis. There are also 86 public libraries in the city. The East Berlin system which inherited the Hauptelegraphenamt, the central hub of the system, was in operation until 1976, Berlin's two largest energy provider for private households are the Swedish firm Vattenfall and the Berlin-based company GASAG. The state of Brandenburg surrounds the place. Aug 7, 2018 - What is the Capital of Germany? [105] About 2.7% of the population identify with other Christian denominations (mostly Eastern Orthodox, but also various Protestants). The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille"). Since 2015, the Arkenberge hills in Pankow at 122 metres (400 feet) elevation, have been the highest point in Berlin. These include the Old National Gallery, the Bode Museum, the Pergamon Museum, the German Historical Museum, the Jewish Museum Berlin, the Natural History Museum, the Humboldt Forum, which is scheduled to open in late 2020, the Berlin State Library, the Berlin State Opera, the Berlin Philharmonic and the Berlin Marathon.[25]. [205], In Dahlem, there are several museums of world art and culture, such as the Museum of Asian Art, the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of European Cultures, as well as the Allied Museum. More Quiz Join Telegram Channel . It is also a state-city. [248] The Mellowpark in Köpenick is one of the biggest skate and BMX parks in Europe. Turkish and Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the lahmajoun and falafel, which have become common fast food staples. The Messe Berlin (also known as Berlin ExpoCenter City) is the main convention organizing company in the city. [192] In 2012, around 65,000 professional scientists were working in research and development in the city. In 2018, the GDP of Berlin totaled €147 billion, an increase of 3.1% over the previous year. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel (a tributary of the River Elbe) in the western borough of Spandau. It partners with major multinational companies such as Siemens, Deutsche Telekom, and SAP. It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division. [134] Several major corporations like Volkswagen, Pfizer, and SAP operate innovation laboratories in the city. [236] The city's other zoo, Tierpark Friedrichsfelde, was founded in 1955. [37], The Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648 devastated Berlin. The Bundesrat ("federal council") is the representation of the Federal States (Bundesländer) of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian Herrenhaus (House of Lords). flashcards. [98] 48 percent of the residents under the age of 15 have migration background. Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch after the Wall came down. [157] According to the 2019 study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Berlin was ranked number 92 of all 401 regions in Germany. [13] After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided; West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) and East German territory. After the war, the repaired bridge served as a checkpoint and border crossing between the Soviet and American sectors, and later between East and West Berlin. The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. Berlin's official sister cities are:[121], Apart from sister cities, there are also several city and district partnerships that Berlin districts have established. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). [134] ResearchGate, a global social networking site for scientists, is based in Berlin. Berlin hosts in total 158 foreign embassies[129] as well as the headquarters of many think tanks, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations. Each borough has a number of subdistricts or neighborhoods (Ortsteile), which have roots in much older municipalities that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October 1920. [198], The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree. [141], Among the 10 largest employers in Berlin are the City-State of Berlin, Deutsche Bahn, the hospital providers Charité and Vivantes, the Federal Government of Germany, the local public transport provider BVG, Siemens and Deutsche Telekom. Several large-scale trade fairs like the consumer electronics trade fair IFA, the ILA Berlin Air Show, the Berlin Fashion Week (including the Premium Berlin and the Panorama Berlin),[148] the Green Week, the Fruit Logistica, the transport fair InnoTrans, the tourism fair ITB and the adult entertainment and erotic fair Venus are held annually in the city, attracting a significant number of business visitors. Around 125,000 civilians were killed. Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany. With an area of 43 hectares (110 acres) and around 22,000 different plant species, it is one of the largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in the world. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. In 1949, the country was split into West Germany, formed from the American, British, and French occupation zones, and East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone. Much ornamentation on pre-war buildings was destroyed following modernist dogmas, and in both post-war systems, as well as in the reunified Berlin, many important heritage structures have been reconstructed, including the Forum Fridericianum along with, the State Opera (1955), Charlottenburg Palace (1957), the monumental buildings on Gendarmenmarkt (1980s), Kommandantur (2003) and also the project to reconstruct the baroque façades of the City Palace. Some of the most visited places in Berlin include: Potsdamer Platz, Brandenburger Tor, the Berlin wall, Alexanderplatz, Museumsinsel, Fernsehturm, the East-Side Gallery, Schloss-Charlottenburg, Zoologischer Garten, Siegessäule, Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer, Mauerpark, Botanical Garden, Französischer Dom, Deutscher Dom and Holocaust-Mahnmal. However, the individual boroughs are not independent municipalities, but subordinate to the Senate of Berlin. Clim Change 92: 99–107, world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement, Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Union of Evangelical Free Church Congregations in Germany, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Berlin's 12 boroughs and their 96 neighborhoods, List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany, Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, International Congress and Convention Association, largest power plants measured by capacity, Universities and research institutions in Berlin, Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin, European Institute of Innovation and Technology, "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg – Statistiken", "Statistischer Bericht: Einwohnerinnen und Einwohner im Land Berlin am 31. Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings. Currently, Berlin serves as the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany with the seat of the President of Germany, whose official residence is Schloss Bellevue. [92][1], In 2014, the city state Berlin had 37,368 live births (+6.6%), a record number since 1991.

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