Throughout the course of the war, British officers trained American ones for battle, most notably George Washington, which benefitted the American cause during the Revolution. Father Junípero Serra, founded the first missions in Spanish upper Las Californias, starting with Mission San Diego de Alcalá in 1769. , Georgia was established on strict moralistic principles. They sought election to the House of Burgesses or appointment as justice of the peace.. Roman Catholics were the first major religious group to immigrate to the New World, as settlers in the colonies of Portugal and Spain, and later, France, belonged to that faith. They had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Portugal and Spain. Ethnicity made a difference in agricultural practice. The Puritans created a deeply religious, socially tight-knit, and politically innovative culture that still influences the modern United States. The plan was thwarted by colonial legislatures and King George II, but it was an early indication that the British colonies of North America were headed towards unification. Jamestown Colony, first permanent English settlement in North America, located near present-day Williamsburg, Virginia. , Pennsylvania was founded in 1681 as a proprietary colony of Quaker William Penn. Columbus's first settlement in the New World, European Voyages of Exploration: Christopher Columbus, The English Establish a Foothold at Jamestown, Texts of Imagination and Empire: The Founding of Jamestown in Its Atlantic Context, Toolbox Library: Primary Resources in U.S. History and Literature, 13 pages, excluding the artifact collections. Previous colonial wars in North America had started in Europe and then spread to the colonies, but the French and Indian War is notable for having started in North America and spread to Europe. Three of Lane's men, off on an expedition, were left behind — the first "lost colonists." New England farming families generally lived in wooden houses because of the abundance of trees. They were set up after the Restoration of 1660 and typically enjoyed greater civil and religious liberty. Carolina was not settled until 1670, and even then the first attempt failed because there was no incentive for emigration to that area. ... From there, the people were thought to have spread throughout the continent and down to the tip of South America. The Parliament began a series of taxes and punishments which met more and more resistance: First Quartering Act (1765); Declaratory Act (1766); Townshend Revenue Act (1767); and Tea Act (1773). There were ethnic differences in the treatment of women. Also, colonial legislatures and officials had to cooperate intensively, for the first time, in pursuit of the continent-wide military effort. Another group which called for independence was the Sons of Liberty, which had been founded in 1765 in Boston by Samuel Adams and which was now becoming even more strident and numerous. Merchants then exported them to the West Indies, where they were traded for molasses, sugar, gold coins, and bills of exchange (credit slips). Third, the American colonies were exceptional in the world because of the representation of many different interest groups in political decision-making. The Dominion of New England was dissolved and governments resumed under their earlier charters.. It is believed that the first Europeans arrived in North America in the 11thCentury. Gilson, Nathan B. By 1640, 20,000 had arrived; many died soon after arrival, but the others found a healthy climate and an ample food supply. , Shopkeepers, artisans, shipwrights, butchers, coopers, seamstresses, cobblers, bakers, carpenters, masons, and many other specialized crafts made up the middle class of seaport society. The two chief armed rebellions were short-lived failures in Virginia in 1676 and in New York in 1689–91. White Ethnicity in the Formation of Colonial American Culture,", Wayne L. Bockelman, and Owen S. Ireland, "The Internal Revolution in Pennsylvania: An Ethnic-Religious Interpretation,", Henry R. Viets, "Some Features of the History of Medicine in Massachusetts during the Colonial Period, 1620–1770,", Richard H. Shryock, "Eighteenth Century Medicine in America,". FIRST SETTLERS IN AMERICA Emigrants from England, 1773-1776. , Seaports that expanded from wheat trade had more social classes than anywhere else in the Middle Colonies. There were no separate seminaries, law schools, or divinity schools. As early as 1687, the Spanish government had begun to offer asylum to slaves from British colonies, and the Spanish Crown officially proclaimed in 1693 that runaway slaves would find freedom in Florida in return for converting to Catholicism and four years of military service to the Spanish Crown. Wealthy merchants in Philadelphia and New York, like their counterparts in New England, built elegant Georgian-style mansions such as those in Fairmount Park. Much of the architecture of the Middle Colonies reflects the diversity of its people. Hundreds of seamen worked as sailors on merchant ships, some of whom were African American. The administration was eventually led by Governor Sir Edmund Andros and seized colonial charters, revoked land titles, and ruled without local assemblies, causing anger among the population. He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony over theological disagreements, and he and other settlers founded Providence Plantation based on an egalitarian constitution providing for majority rule "in civil things" and "liberty of conscience" in religious matters. It was at the Roanoke Colony that Virginia Dare became the first English child born in America; her fate is unknown. (John Smith, who also felt compelled to defend his leadership, had left for good in 1609. Following the decline of the Taíno population, more slaves were brought to Puerto Rico; however, the number of slaves on the island paled in comparison to those in neighboring islands. For other uses, see, "Colonial America" redirects here. The Massachusetts charter was revoked in 1684 and was replaced by a provincial charter that was issued in 1691. The Results of a Survey on Forty Propositions", "Indentured Servitude in Colonial America", Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, "Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2005", History of the Religious Society of Friends, https://www.bostonfed.org/-/media/Documents/education/pubs/historyo.pdf, https://archive.org/details/diariesofjohnhul00hull, https://www.bls.org/apps/pages/index.jsp?uREC_ID=206116&type=d, Colonial America 1600–1775, K12 Resources, "WWW-VL: HISTORY: USA: COLONIAL ERA" links to hundreds of primary and secondary documents, maps and articles, Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, African Americans in the Revolutionary War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colonial_history_of_the_United_States&oldid=989160105, Colonization history of the United States, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Beer, George Louis. Tobacco was not important here; farmers focused on hemp, grain, cattle, and horses. Colonial physicians introduced modern medicine to the cities in the 18th century, following the models in England and Scotland, and made some advances in vaccination, pathology, anatomy, and pharmacology.. Richard H. Shryock, "British versus German traditions in colonial agriculture. People became passionately and emotionally involved in their religion, rather than passively listening to intellectual discourse in a detached manner. They ignored the Indians and tolerated slavery (although few were rich enough to own a slave).. , About 305,326 slaves were transported to America, or less than 2% of the 12 million slaves taken from Africa. Years later, the entire New Netherland colony was incorporated into England's colonial holdings.  From Nova Scotia to Georgia, all British subjects bought similar products, creating and anglicizing a sort of common identity.. Slavery was officially forbidden, as were alcohol and other forms of immorality. From 1770 until 1860, the birth rate of American slaves was much greater than for the population of any nation in Europe, and was nearly twice as rapid as that of England. The U.S. defeated Spain by the end of the year, and won control of Puerto Rico in the ensuing peace treaty. In 1508, Sir Ponce de Leon was chosen by the Spanish Crown to lead the conquest and slavery of the Taíno Indians for gold mining operations. The colonists replied that their sons had fought and died in a war that served European interests more than their own. Large numbers of Irish and German Protestants had settled in the frontier districts, often moving down from Pennsylvania. To promote their viewpoints, the two sides established academies and colleges, including Princeton and Williams College. Tobacco exhausted the soil quickly, requiring new fields to be cleared on a regular basis. By 1750, a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants provided services to the growing farming population. Racism, History and Lies The BERING STRAIT DOCTRINE insists that all indigenous American peoples came across a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska, filtering down through Central America into South America. Isabella barely survived until 1496 when Columbus ordered a new town built on the island as the Spanish capital (now Santo Domingo). "Racism made it possible for white Virginians to develop a devotion to the equality that English republicans had declared to be the soul of liberty." , The French and Spanish established colonies in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. The Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies together spawned other Puritan colonies in New England, including the New Haven, Saybrook, and Connecticut colonies. How does each settlement's purpose and leadership affect its outcome? , Church membership statistics by denomination are unreliable and scarce from the colonial period, but Anglicans were not in the majority by the time of the American Revolutionary War and probably did not comprise even 30 percent of the population in the Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) where the Church of England was the established church. Their Separatist faith motivated their move from Europe. The governor had the power of absolute veto and could prorogue (i.e., delay) and dissolve the assembly. Of these, 300,406 (51.5%) were white and 282,775 (48.5%) were persons of color, the latter including people of primarily African heritage, mulattos and mestizos. In the 17th century, high mortality rates for newcomers and a very high ratio of men to women made family life either impossible or unstable for most colonists. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives almost never worked in the fields with their husbands. During the French and Indian War (1754–1763) many of these settlements became occupied by the British. The religious history of the United States began with the Pilgrim settlers who came on the Mayflower in 1620. Education was primarily the responsibility of families, but numerous religious groups established tax-supported elementary schools, especially the Puritans in New England, so that their children could read the Bible. One of the primary causes of the war was increasing competition between Britain and France, especially in the Great Lakes and Ohio valley.. This plan would both rid Great Britain of its undesirable elements and provide her with a base from which to attack Florida. There was little government control, regulation of medical care, or attention to public health. The mystery of how the first settlers arrived in North America remains hotly debated. Freedom of religion became a basic American principle, and numerous new movements emerged, many of which became established denominations in their own right. In 1867, the U.S. purchased Alaska, and nearly all Russians abandoned the area except a few missionaries of the Russian Orthodox Church working among the natives. The government protected its London-based merchants and kept out others by trade barriers, regulations, and subsidies to domestic industries in order to maximize exports from the realm and minimize imports.  The Russian-American Company was formed in 1799 with the influence of Nikolay Rezanov, for the purpose of buying sea otters for their fur from native hunters. There were no cities of any size and very few towns, so there was scarcely an urban middle class at all. The Great Awakening has been called the first truly American event..  The "Hull Mint" was forced to close in 1683. Finally and most dramatically, the Americans were fascinated by and increasingly adopted the political values of Republicanism which stressed equal rights, the need for virtuous citizens, and the evils of corruption, luxury, and aristocracy.  Over the following 20 years, people fleeing persecution from King Charles I settled most of New England. Hundreds of New England shipwrights built oceangoing ships, which they sold to British and American merchants. He therefore offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million. Many were involved in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco, the first cash crop of Virginia. In recent years, historians have enlarged their perspective to cover the entire Atlantic world in a subfield now known as Atlantic history. It was composed of several colonies: Acadia, Canada, Newfoundland, Louisiana, Île-Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island), and Île Saint Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island). Printing was expensive, and most publications focused on purely practical matters, such as major news, advertisements, and business reports. Economically, Puritan New England fulfilled the expectations of its founders. Florida was home to about 3,000 Spaniards at the time, and nearly all quickly left. Most sick people turned to local healers and used folk remedies. The United States completed the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, doubling the size of the nation.. Which decisions made in the first months of a settlement prove critical to its outcome? Kenneth Coleman, Kenneth. The Spanish were among the first Europeans to explore the New World and the first to settle in what is now the United States.  Each group assimilated into the dominant English, Protestant, commercial, and political culture, albeit with local variations. When sons married, fathers gave them gifts of land, livestock, or farming equipment; daughters received household goods, farm animals, or cash. When it ended, only 60 settlers were alive. What obstacles to settlement do these accounts describe? Which are unique? "British Colonial Policy, 1754–1765,", Daniels, Bruce C. "Economic Development in Colonial and Revolutionary Connecticut: An Overview,", Grenier, John. The English and the Germans brought along multiple Protestant denominations. The Illinois country by 1752 had a French population of 2,500; it was located to the west of the Ohio Country and was concentrated around Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Sainte Genevieve. By 1700, Philadelphia was exporting 350,000 bushels of wheat and 18,000 tons of flour annually. A governor and (in some provinces) his council were appointed by the crown. The charters provided a fundamental constitution and divided powers among legislative, executive, and judicial functions, with those powers being vested in officials. The two oldest public universities are also in the South: the University of North Carolina (1795) and the University of Georgia (1785).  The following year, the colony was abandoned in favor of a nearby island on the coast, named Puerto Rico (Rich Port), which had a suitable harbor. He set up a colony of about 100 men on the east coast of North America, on land he named Virginia after Queen Elizabeth I, who being unmarried, was known as the “Virgin Queen.” These settlers only lasted for a … The prospect of religious persecution by authorities of the crown and the Church of England prompted a significant number of colonization efforts. In the seventeenth century, most voluntary colonists were of English origins who settled chiefly along the coastal regions of the Eastern seaboard. , In the colonial era, Americans insisted on their rights as Englishmen to have their own legislature raise all taxes. In New England, the Puritan settlers brought their strong religious values with them to the New World, which dictated that a woman be submissive to her husband and dedicate herself to rearing God-fearing children to the best of her ability. The government spent much of its revenue on the Royal Navy, which protected the British colonies and also threatened the colonies of the other empires, sometimes even seizing them. English and Dutch colonies, on the other hand, tended to be more religiously diverse.  The majority of the population in Puerto Rico was illiterate (83.7%) and lived in poverty, and the agricultural industry—at the time, the main source of income—was hampered by lack of road infrastructure, adequate tools and equipment, and natural disasters, including hurricanes and droughts. Spain regained control of Florida in 1783 by the Peace of Paris which ended the Revolutionary War. , By the mid-18th century, the values of the American Enlightenment became established and weakened the view that husbands were natural "rulers" over their wives.  Philadelphia became the largest city in the colonies with its central location, excellent port, and a population of about 30,000.. Spain also intended to destabilize the plantation economy of the British colonies by creating a free black community to attract slaves. New England became an important mercantile and shipbuilding center, along with agriculture, fishing, and logging, serving as the hub for trading between the southern colonies and Europe.. Life expectancy was much greater in the American colonies because of better food, less disease, lighter work loads, and better medical care, so the population grew rapidly, reaching 4 million by the 1860 Census. David Armitage and Michael J. Braddick, eds., Alison. This tool was able to triple the amount of work done by farmers in one day. The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of America from the early 16th century until the incorporation of the colonies into the United States of America. There were also several Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, but Spain gave the United States all claims to the Pacific Northwest in the Adams–Onís Treaty. Horse racing was especially important for knitting together the gentry. During the war, the position of the British colonies as part of the British Empire was made truly apparent, as British military and civilian officials took on an increased presence in the lives of Americans. He was a patron of George Washington and was not disturbed during the war. At this time, however, there was no official attempt by the English government to create a colonial empire. , Many of the political structures of the colonies drew upon the republicanism expressed by opposition leaders in Britain, most notably the Commonwealth men and the Whig traditions. On the eastern seaboard, the four distinct English regions were New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies (Upper South), and the Southern Colonies (Lower South). , Ethnocultural factors were most visible in Pennsylvania. Unlike English colonial wives, German and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were also given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage. The capital of Santa Fe was settled in 1610 and remains the oldest continually inhabited settlement in the United States. First permanent English settlement in North America 1585: Roanoke Colony: North … Rushforth, Brett, Paul Mapp, and Alan Taylor, eds. The French and Indian War took on a new significance for the British North American colonists when William Pitt the Elder decided that major military resources needed to be devoted to North America in order to win the war against France. Most white men owned some land, and therefore could vote. Thus, the British Navy captured New Amsterdam (New York) in 1664. The wealthier men who paid their way received land grants known as headrights, to encourage settlement. Massachusetts had particularly low requirements for voting eligibility and strong rural representation in its assembly from its 1691 charter; consequently, it also had a strong populist faction that represented the province's lower classes. , Second, a very wide range of public and private business was decided by elected bodies in the colonies, especially the assemblies and county governments in each colony. The first months of the colony were chronicled by John Smith, Edward Wingfield, and in this selection by George Percy, who twice served as the colony's governor. Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of present-day California from the early 16th century to the mid-18th century, but no settlements were established over those centuries. Families increased their productivity by exchanging goods and labor with each other. During this era, English proto-nationalism and national assertiveness blossomed under the threat of Spanish invasion, assisted by a degree of Protestant militarism and the energy of Queen Elizabeth. A massive population explosion in Europe brought wheat prices up. Entrepreneurs had begun to mine and smelt the local iron ores. However, large numbers of Dutch remained in the colony, dominating the rural areas between New York City and Albany. The Spanish set up a network of Catholic missions in California, but they had all closed decades before 1848 when California became a state. Each colony had a paid colonial agent in London to represent its interests. During the American Revolution, East and West Florida were Loyalist colonies. The early methods and tools used in South Carolina were congruent with those in Africa. Of the 650,000 inhabitants of the South in 1750, about 250,000 or 40 percent, were slaves. They owned increasingly large plantations that were worked by African slaves. It brought Christianity to the slaves and was a powerful event in New England that challenged established authority. They generally retained their historic languages and cultural traditions, even as they merged into the developing American culture. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses so that gold and silver would pour into London. The governor was invested with general executive powers and authorized to call a locally elected assembly. The American political culture was open to economic, social, religious, ethnic, and geographical interests, with merchants, landlords, petty farmers, artisans, Anglicans, Presbyterians, Quakers, Germans, Scotch Irish, Yankees, Yorkers, and many other identifiable groups taking part. The United States took possession of East Florida in 1821 according to the terms of the Adams–Onís Treaty. American names largely predominated, however, in the list of settlers of the next two years, as recorded by the city’s historian; St. Paul thus suddenly became American. There were Willow Tree Shillings, Oak Tree Shillings, and Pine Tree Shillings" minted by John Hull and Robert Sanderson in the "Hull Mint" on Summer Street in Boston, Massachusetts.  The death rate was very high among those who arrived first, and some early attempts disappeared altogether, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. When settlers first came to the New World forests covered a large per cent of the land. Followers of Edwards and other preachers called themselves the "New Lights", as contrasted with the "Old Lights" who disapproved of their movement. A few were also killed in disputes with the local Native American peoples called the Powhatan. It caused men to travel across the continent who might otherwise have never left their own colony, fighting alongside men from decidedly different backgrounds who were nonetheless still "American". ", Leo A. Bressler, "Agriculture among the Germans in Pennsylvania during the Eighteenth Century. Many Americans at the time saw the colonies' systems of governance as modeled after the British constitution of the time, with the king corresponding to the governor, the House of Commons to the colonial assembly, and the House of Lords to the governor's council. The Puritan economy was based on the efforts of self-supporting farmsteads that traded only for goods which they could not produce themselves, unlike the cash crop-oriented plantations of the Chesapeake region. Pennsylvania (which included Delaware), New Jersey, and Maryland were proprietary colonies. With a decrease in the number of British willing to go to the colonies in the eighteenth century, planters began importing more enslaved Africans, who became the predominant labor force on the plantations. The first colonists arrived in 1733. , The Province of Carolina was the first attempted English settlement south of Virginia. The war also increased a sense of American unity in other ways. Successful escaped slaves often fled to “maroon communities'' which were populated with former slaves along with local Native Americans that helped shelter the recently escaped. Nearly continuous frontier warfare during the era of King William's War and Queen Anne's War drove economic and political wedges between merchants and planters. ISABELLA was a small town that Columbus ordered his men to build on the northeastern shore of Hispaniola (in present-day Dominican Republic) during his second voyage to the New World in 1493. Following the war, Britain gained all French territory east of the Mississippi River, including Quebec, the Great Lakes, and the Ohio River valley.  In addition, many small subsistence farms were family owned and operated by yeoman.  Much of the population consisted of young, single, white indentured servants and, as such, the colonies lacked social cohesiveness, to a large degree. The most important of these was St. Augustine, founded in 1565 but repeatedly attacked and burned by pirates, privateers, and English forces, and nearly all the Spanish left after the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Florida to Great Britain. Britain found a market for their goods in the British colonies of North America, increasing her exports to that region by 360% between 1740 and 1770. In effect, Spaniards created a maroon settlement in Florida as a front-line defense against English attacks from the north. Practical considerations playe… The population began to stabilize around 1700, with a 1704 census listing 30,437 white people present with 7,163 of those being women. The oldest university in the South, The College of William & Mary, was founded in 1693 in Virginia; it pioneered in the teaching of political economy and educated future U.S. Presidents Jefferson, Monroe and Tyler, all from Virginia. Slavery would become an impor-tant part of life in the Southern colonies in the years ahead. The first colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. The British Parliament, however, asserted in 1765 that it held supreme authority to lay taxes, and a series of American protests began that led directly to the American Revolution. As part of the colonization process, African slaves were brought to the island in 1513. Local Indians expelled the Spanish for 12 years following the Pueblo Revolt of 1680; they returned in 1692 in the bloodless reoccupation of Santa Fe. With easy navigation by river, there were few towns and no cities; planters shipped directly to Britain. The original settlers in South Carolina established a lucrative trade in food for the slave plantations in the Caribbean.  During the 18th century, couples usually married between the ages of 20–24, and 6–8 children were typical of a family, with three on average surviving to adulthood. However, the Massachusetts charter had been revoked in 1684, and a new one was issued in 1691 that combined Massachusetts and Plymouth into the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Like all early travelers to the New World, they came in small, overcrowded ships. There is a World Heritage site called l’Anse aux Meadows on Newfoundland that contains the remains of their settlement. The accession of newcomers from below was of course not very great, but their enterprise and enthusiasm were phenomenal. After 1700, most immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants, young unmarried men and women seeking a new life in a much richer environment. , Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain in 1763, which established the colonies of East and West Florida. William Penn founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682, and attracted an influx of British Quakers with his policies of religious liberty and freehold ownership. , England made its first successful efforts at the start of the 17th century for several reasons. , Sports occupied a great deal of attention at every social level, starting at the top. Using this technique, they grew corn for human consumption and as feed for hogs and other livestock. English preacher George Whitefield and other itinerant preachers continued the movement, traveling throughout the colonies and preaching in a dramatic and emotional style. Starting in the 16th century, Spain built a colonial empire in the Americas consisting of New Spain and other vice-royalties. It was a private venture, financed by a group of English Lords Proprietors who obtained a Royal Charter to the Carolinas in 1663, hoping that a new colony in the south would become profitable like Jamestown. The British elite, the most heavily taxed of any in Europe, pointed out angrily that the colonists paid little to the royal coffers. The colony of Georgia never had an established religion; it consisted of people of various faiths. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established within several decades. The cultivation of rice was introduced during the 1690s and became an important export crop. It remains the oldest European-built house in New Jersey and is believed to be one of the oldest surviving log houses in the United States. Beginning late in the 17th century, the administration of all British colonies was overseen by the Board of Trade in London. However the Dutch landholdings remained, and the Hudson River Valley maintained a traditional Dutch character until the 1820s. Virginia founded the College of William and Mary in 1693; it was primarily Anglican. However, the reality of the colony was far different.  There was a generally higher economic standing and standard of living in New England than in the Chesapeake. Anglican clergy in the southern colonies were commonly referred to as "ministers" to distinguish them from Roman Catholic priests, although they were actually ordained as priests, unlike other Protestants. The government also fought smuggling, and this became a direct source of controversy with American merchants when their normal business activities became reclassified as "smuggling" by the Navigation Acts.  Many of the founding fathers were active in a local church; some of them had Deist sentiments, such as Jefferson, Franklin, and Washington.  As an example, German farmers generally preferred oxen rather than horses to pull their plows and Scots-Irish made a farming economy based on hogs and corn. After Bacon's Rebellion, African slaves rapidly replaced indentured servants as Virginia's main labor force. Hunger and disease soon led to mutiny, punishment, disillusion, and more hunger and disease. The British crown often turned to the inexpensive yet strongly built American ships. Nieuw-Nederland, or New Netherland, was a colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands chartered in 1614, in what became New York State, New Jersey, and parts of other neighboring states. 14 to 16 percent remained Anglican but were declining in number, and the remaining 2 percent of the churches were Catholic. By 1650, however, England had established a dominant presence on the Atlantic coast. Britain also gained Spanish Florida, from which it formed the colonies of East and West Florida.  Anglicans in America were under the authority of the Bishop of London, who sent out missionaries and ordained men from the Colonies to minister in American parishes. ), PLYMOUTH. Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams on land provided by Narragansett sachem Canonicus.  They handled land grants, commercial subsidies, and taxation, as well as oversight of roads, poor relief, taverns, and schools. , Another point on which the colonies found themselves more similar than different was the booming import of British goods. Stores were set up by traders selling English manufactures such as cloth, iron utensils, and window glass, as well as West Indian products such as sugar and molasses. A large chimney stood in the middle of the house that provided cooking facilities and warmth during the winter. The mainstream of intellectual activity in the colonies was on technological and engineering developments rather than more abstract topics such as politics or metaphysics. The Floridas remained loyal to Great Britain during the American Revolution. Jonathan Edwards was a key leader and a powerful intellectual in colonial America. Instead, the newspaper was the principal form of reading material in the colonies. , As Bonomi (1971) shows, the most distinctive feature of colonial society was the vibrant political culture, which attracted the most talented and ambitious young men into politics. , Historian Edmund Morgan (1975) argues that Virginians in the 1650s and for the next two centuries turned to slavery and a racial divide as an alternative to class conflict.
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