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Greater China—the People’s Republic, Hong Kong, and Taiwan—illustrates two sharply divergent paths to e-government. Legal, Regulatory and Policy Issues of e-Commerce in Asia A Division of Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Digital trends and best practices developed in the U.K. are gaining momentum around the world, including the U.S. Another difference between e-governance in industrialised and developing countries is in the available ICT infrastructure. In 1999, Kerala launched the Information Kerala Mission (IKM), an agency whose purpose is to decentralize and democratize regional planning through the use of IT among 1209 local public institutions, enhancing the public’s trust (Unnikrishnan, 2006). VAT Registration No: 842417633. The existent principles address (to a limited extent) liability after misuse of the Health Information, and do not lay down standards for use of that information. It is the relationship between online tools, sources, and articles that help employees to maintain the communication with the government and their own companies. The United Kingdom’s Office of Public Sector Information stated that, “Information, particularly PSI, is at the head of the citizen’s relationship with government and the public sector” (Office of Public Sector Information, 2009, p. 18). reducing government bureaucracy, making e-solutions part of decision-making. The regional government also developed two telecenter programs, Rural e-Seva and Rajiv Internet Village Centers (Rajivs; Kuriyan and Ray, 2009). 2000 . Some other factors that have contributed to the growing popularity of e-Government are discussed below. Pubic lawyers are particularly keen to note that it is legally problematical to provide a government which is as seamless as this (as well as difficult to believe it is achievable). It is no surprise that it too has created a unique system of e-government. “Electronic Government” has become one of the most important issues in the transformation of the public sector in many countries [1]. 11.3 ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE LAW, (December 2007). Nevertheless, the decline should not be interpreted as the degeneration of e-government … For example, a supermarket, i.e., a business, sells to us, i.e., consumers. In India, there have been feverish attempts to update the Indian legal and regulatory framework to make it more relevant in the face of rapid developments in ICTs. A federal government is a system of government that divides the power between a larger central government, and the local and regional governments beneath it. hence the advantage of creating an open market and stronger economy. Yet, experience has shown that it is crucial for e-Government success, both in terms of affordability and long-term sustainability. Some countries and agencies have not yet started to transform services into e-services, while others are working with their visions, demands, and capabilities to develop e-Government services. In particular, the process of streamlining administrative procedures could eliminate barriers to its deployment. E-Government requires the establishment of a range of suitable legal and regulatory measures that are aimed at: Countries should be ready to adapt their legislative framework to apply “electronic equivalents” of traditional paper procedures, such as personal identification, signing and filing. But to what extent, and does it necessarily imply that applicable rules have to be changed because they are not fi t for the new technological developments in the public sector? This means government selling to businesses. Dave (2005) argues the lack of authenticity and reliability, lack of accountability, redundancy of data, improper identification of user such as citizens, lack of accountability due to inappropriate delegation of authority, cyber crimes like fraud, theft, virus and incompetent security of on-line data transaction on Internet are the leading barriers to implement e-government from a legal perspective. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Recognizing the digital exchange of information and allowing electronic transactions and record keeping, Reaching citizens affordably and enabling citizens to reach government affordably by facilitating availability of and access to information and communication services, Lack of IT literacy and awareness regarding benefits of E-Governance, Underutilisation of existing ICT infrastructure, Lack of coordination between government department and solution developers, Resistance to re-engineering of departmental processes, Lack of infrastructure for sustaining E-Governance projects at national level, curbing cyber crime and regulating the online environment .[33]. [38], The draft National Policy on Open Standards initiated by the Department of Information Technology (DIT) in June 2008 aims to augment e-governance solutions across India by ensuring seamless interoperability of various solutions developed by multiple agencies in this field. Other components include eBeat, which uses Radio Frequency Identification Device tags to ensure police are on their scheduled routes, the Automated Finger Print Identification System, and GIS-Based Crime Analysis and Reporting Engine, a geographic information system to analyze crime patterns. (2006) revealed wide variations in their degree of user-friendliness, with most simply providing information and allowing forms to be downloaded and few allowing two-way interactions or citizen input. The Rajiv Internet Village centers program includes two corporate partners, who pay the state for access to e-government information, although districts provide subsidies. It is not a question of recognizing merely the freedom of the public to have access to information which the authorities wish to give them, but rather to secure a genuine ‘right to know’ for the public. Free resources to assist you with your legal studies! Legal framework being the important infrastructure element needs to be user-friendly and implementable at all levels for the purpose of compliance. This chapter offers and overview of electronic government, or e-government, the various forms it assumes, and its impacts. E-government has the potential to enhance democracy and transparency, increasing opportunities for citizen interaction. Another common stage is the one in … Nevertheless, an unauthorized intrusion into a person’s home and the disturbance caused to him thereby, would constitute a violation of a common law right of a man. 9. Normally this would only have been possible at counter during opening hours. Such observations cast doubt on rosy expectations that IT alone can unleash catalytic changes in rural areas. While trying to attain this goal, the risk of violating citizen’s privacy comes up under scrutiny from ethical and legal perspectives. Karnataka also implemented Khajane in 2002, which connected all 215 of its local treasuries through a satellite network, allowing automatic payments to contractors and pensioners, controlling expenditures, and making sure budgets are not exceeded. George Stachokas, in After the Book, 2014. In this model, companies sell to consumers. The problem is that any e-government solution has to be integrated with local processes and IT systems, as well as with the larger regional and federal institutions that tie them all together. Following several pilot programs, IKM placed numerous kiosks (janasevanakendrams) in hospitals and public offices throughout the state, using elected village councils (panchayats), which allow birth and death registrations, issuances of licenses and permits, payments of pensions, and collection of taxes. It is the application of ICT in government operations, achieving public ends by digital means. Some worry that making it easier to obtain RTCs made poor farmers vulnerable to land sharks (Guha and Chakrabarti, 2014). While the Supreme Court has not squarely addressed the issue of whether the actions of private individuals (Healthcare Providers) can be subject to the right to privacy, it may be necessary to provide specifically for the right to privacy in respect of Health Information. First, the various country reports testify that the effect that e-government gives rise to in the law is in the ways of seeing and conceiving law and traditionallegal concepts in an online society. It suffered cuts to its fiber cables by thieves, which periodically disrupted service (Harris and Rajora, 2006). [21], It is plain that the increasing use of electronic media for administrative tasks, with new possibilities for data links in networks or with multi-functional chip cards, involves increased risks for data security. 1. According to Alshehri and Drew (2010), e-government is a channel through which the ruling class interacts with its citizens (e-citizens and e-services), improves public service delivery and processes (e-administration), and builds external interactions (e-society). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Company Registration No: 4964706. Learn more in: The e-Government Concept and e-Government Applications Find more terms and definitions using our Dictionary Search . Legal backbone in Health e-Governance Projects for sustainable development ,. Respectively, these particularly address the problems that government is too costly, too inefficient and too ineffective (e-admininstration); too self-serving and too inconvenient (e-citizens and e-services); and too insular (e-society). It is argued in the European Access to Official Documents Guide that: “The basic principle is that a broad right of access to official documents should be granted on the basis of equality and in application of clear rules, whilst refusal of access should be the exception and must be duly justified. E-government functions can be classified into four main categories. In looking for available examples of specific legal and regulatory initiatives in the light of e-government developments, one is faced with the methodological problem that it is often not clear whether these initiatives are part of the e-government domain, or must be seen in a broader setting. The rules and regulations necessary for e-Government programs differ greatly from country to country, depending on the current social, constitutional and regulatory situation in the implementing country. Existing identity cards, such as bank cards, are certified for use with a digital signature to access all e-government services, eliminating the need for separate paper registration to access each service. It declared 2001 the “year of e-government,” and in 2003 created the position of e-government secretary. Regulations related to health such as the approval and quality control of medication. Aside from the methodological problem of qualifying regulatory chance as ‘e-government legislation’, at a more conceptual level, it cannot be denied that e-government has a clear impact on the legal and regulatory framework. [3], “E-governance is the application of information & communication technologies to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of informational & transactional exchanges with in government, between govt. These examples have been automatically selected and may contain sensitive content. Translations of the word E-GOVERNMENT from english to german and examples of the use of "E-GOVERNMENT" in a sentence with their translations: Information and e-government for citizens. The cost-free e-Krishi application allows agriculturalists to stay in contact with one another and with interested stakeholders, allowing them to share data on crops, yields, prices, and land holdings. It too was formed as a series of public–private partnerships, and began as a pilot project in Malappuram. This is not an example of the work produced by our Law Essay Writing Service. These save time, In fact the complete intake of simple applications can be done online 24 hours per day. Government to offer economic assistance to the events industry during COVID-19. [24], The objective of this phase is to support the preparation of a pre-feasibility assessment. Prins Corien.(2007). E-government can thus be defined as the use of ICTs to more effectively and efficiently deliver government services to citizens and businesses. On the other hand, e-Governance means governing or administering a country/state or organization, with the help of information and communication … As a result, governments, businesses and individuals all over the world are facing the new challenge of combating e-crimes (Serabian, 2000). Again, by avoiding middlemen, including local officials, it reduced bribery and corruption (Bhuiyan, 2011). e-Government services focus on four main customers: citizens, the business community, government employees, and government agencies. It is one of the most ambitious e-government programs in the country. Since e-government pilots have demonstrated a positive impact on corruption, transparency and quality of service, these countries see e-government as an effective tool for governance reform. It succeeded in part because rather than replacing intermediaries (mandis), it reallocated them to managing the shorter supply chains, from which they earned a commission; it also leveraged the knowledge of grain merchants or sanjoyaks. The designation can be used for any relationship between the subject of public administration and the enterprises as one of the basic e-Government models (other model are G2E, G2C or G2G).. Started in 2000, it was the brainchild of the India Tobacco Company in Madhya Pradesh. The definition of governance with examples. However, the very poor, illiterate, members of low castes, and women (for reasons of purdah) rarely utilized the kiosks, often out of simple ignorance, and overall usage rates were low. It allows residents to do their business without visiting numerous offices and confronting the inevitable corruption. E-government, in full electronic government, the use of information and communication technologies, particularly the Internet, in government.. A popular way of conceptualizing e-government is to distinguish between three spheres of technologically mediated interactions. Its educational wing formed the [email protected] project to bring the internet into 12,000 schools, and is now used by 200,000 teachers and 5 million students. Andhra Pradesh has also taken the lead in Indian e-government in other ways. CARD uses a local area network to allow online registration of property deeds, sales, and purchases in 387 access points throughout the state, speeding up and simplifying the procedure. Having completed the first phase of economic policy reform, such countries are now moving to the next phase of reform i.e. We have found examples of innovative practice but there is much to do to realise the full potential from using internet technology and ensure a sufficient number of people use public services delivered electronically. Since that time, while the frameworks included in the primer are sound, just E-governance perspective For knowledge based India Framework for Information society. It notes the wide variety of models of e-government deployed, which serves to undermine simplistic "one-size-fits-all" interpretations. The system is used by 3000 citizens daily, and the website has more than 25,000 registered users. There are 5 MAIN TYPES of E-GOVERNANCE. Several of these issues resemble those faced in the e-commerce domain (e.g. E-government and open government programs often coexist, with different leadership and priorities. The Act seeks to address three areas: While the courts have evolved certain principles using which it may be possible to attach liability to Healthcare Providers, these are clearly inadequate to address the range of issues connected with the creation and use of Health Information, inter alia, for the following reasons: The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation. http://www.gov.za Thirdly, transparency should not always be seen as beneficial, since the authors noted that the visibility of the RTC records enabled land sharks in some cases to better target vulnerable farmers. Successful e-Government initiatives can have demonstrable and tangible impact on improving citizen participation and quality of life as a result of effective multi-stakeholder partnerships. G2B (Government to Business) is a term that refers to the relationships between organizations (subjects) of public administration and enterprises (businesses). It examines factors that lead to the success or failure of e-government programs. Arguably the most famous instance of Indian e-government is Karnataka’s Project Bhoomi (“land”). Kiosks are run by operators who must use their thumbprint and biometric scan to achieve access, thus leaving an audit trail, improving accountability. It built a “TechnoPark” at Trivandrum, India’s first such institution, hosting dozens of IT professionals. -iami2009.com/…/Legal%20Issues-Health%20Final%20-%20Copy.pdf. [4], Abdul Kalam (2005) visualizes establishment of Village Knowledge Centers in 2.3 Lakh Panchayats to empower the villagers with the knowledge and to act as a nodal center for knowledge connectivity for the villagers, and also identifies a “Village Information Officer” to be “the extended eyes and ears of the villagers to the world of knowledge”. Translations of the word E-GOVERNMENT from english to french and examples of the use of "E-GOVERNMENT" in a sentence with their translations: Tallinn ministerial declaration on e-government … Review the decision to use previous data to calculate exam grades. Finally, Indian states have adopted a whole raft of other programs aimed at improving the quality of life in various respects (Yadav and Singh, 2012). E-Government is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of public sector organizations. What does digital government service delivery look like in the real world? Bangalore One (or B1), a project to provide G2C services in cities, operates a chain of one-stop Citizen Service Centers. As is clarified in the ensuing discussion, the primary focus of most of these laws and regulations, is to update the substantive territorial laws of the jurisdictions concerned. E-government (short for electronic government) is the use of technological communications devices, such as computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region. In 2002, it started PROOF (Public Record of Operations and Finance), an online site that discloses public financial activities and enhances transparency; Bangalore was the first city in India to do so. Access to PSI is meant to stimulate the development of information markets and to improve the quality of e-Government services. Technical problems were confronted by upgrading the IT connections to satellite broadband and using solar-powered generators. Farmers report easier access to seeds and fertilizer, lower transactions costs, higher quality output at higher prices, and by cutting out intermediaries, higher profit margins. Arguably the most famous instance of Indian e-government is Karnataka’s Project Bhoomi (“land”). e-Choupal was first implemented for soybean farmers, and was subsequently adopted by coffee, wheat, rice, pulse, and shrimp producers. The overarching objectives, in these examples are similar — officials focus on enhancing the public’s online … Such widespread distribution increases the need to provide security, control, and privacy, and there are already many examples of failure to do so, both in the public and private sectors. The e-Kranti framework addresses the electronic delivery of services through a portfolio of mission mode projects that cut across several government departments. Liability is largely restricted to doctors, since existing principles do not take into account the wide range of other Healthcare Providers. When the December 2004 tsunami struck southern India, iVillages reported rising wave heights to villagers, allowing them to move to safety. What is Government to Consumer (G2C) E-Commerce? Reference this. However, lack of investment in human capital led the project to fail. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of LawTeacher.net. The major critiques of these concepts are summarized in the push for transition to new technology. Services are offered within 2 minutes. The designation can be used for any relationship between the subject of public administration and the citizen, most often it is used as one of the basic relationship within e-Government models. Saxena C.B.K. Digitalized Governance—An Embezzled Opportunity? It is therefore necessary to define only the guiding principles that the regulatory system needs to follow. As Bhatia et al. E-government definition: the provision of government information and services by means of the internet and other... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Rajasthan also has developed several initiatives. Figure 1: Focal Domains for eGovernment Initiatives [2], E-Government is said to have the potential to transform the way that governments operate. According to another estimate, computer viruses annually cause $12b of losses for companies worldwide (Sabadash, 2004)..[20], One of the areas in which e-government offers clear advantages and improvements is the citizen’s access to administrative information. Librarians, working in cooperation with legal experts, also need to explore how changes in law may help to address unforeseen issues and problems with access, use permissions, copyright, and other problems in the information marketplace. The e-Seva (“electronic service”) project (www.esevaonline), modeled after Akshaya, was originally named the Twin Cities Network Services Project after the cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. More and more data are entered electronically and stored in central databases, and an increasing amount of information can be called up at computer workplaces. Funded by the state Revenue Department, Bhoomi, which started in 2001 and was launched in 177 taluks (subdistricts), allows internet delivery of 20 million land titles for 6.7 million rural farmers. The presence of a common, standard exchange interface ensures technological heterogeneity, which is intrinsic to the growing “pathway” of ICT infrastructures within each agency, and ensures that local technical solutions are independent. Koreans have reaped the benefits in numerous ways, notably in a more efficient and honest system with minimal corruption. It reminds readers of the ongoing digital divide, which is being ameliorated through the widespread adoption of smart phones. www.csi-sigegov.org/2/1_414_2.pdf, 13. The system operates as a public–private partnership, in which firms run the front end through kiosks in exchange for service fees and the registration department issues the certificates for the record of Rights, Tenancy and Crops (RTCs). 125-137. It is operational in Ahmedabad, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Lucknow, Delhi, and Vijayawada. Conflux 2005 (www.conflux.csdms.in). The findings were contrasted with the reports from the e-Government ranking by the 3 e-Government research institutes. For example, presenting government information is commonly perceived as a first step to implementing e-government, despite the different names assigned to it (i.e. Therefore, one of the most important instruments of citizens’ control of public authorities is the principle of public access to government information. In this way citizens who needs to interact concurrently with several agencies can rely on a single seamless interface that will allow them to navigate through different services, provided by different sources, with as little inconvenience as possible. Guha and Chakrabarti (2014, p. 333) note, “The project was born out of a proposal submitted by the Malappuram Panchayat, the local self government.” The kiosks provided several services in Malayalam, including email, digital albums, the issuance of birth and death certificates, e-payments of government salaries, a telemedicine initiative called Cancernet, an e-library, and training in English and Arabic; the e-cop program allows citizens to network with the police. The Singapore eCitizen portal represents an example of best practice in e-government web services, its only weakness being perhaps the apparent lack of implementation of measures to make the site fully accessible to the disabled. Andhra Pradesh also launched a Wide Area Network, with voice, data, and video communications, which allows citizens to pay utility bills and property taxes, purchase certificates and apply for licenses, and acquire information regarding building permits and property registration (Schware, 2000). PracticesThe followings are examples of e-government features that are available from some of state or local government agencies. The policy requires all new e-government infrastructure and government to public systems to conform to open standards that are freely implementable, that conform to domestic laws, and that support localization. It also provides weather forecasts, computer training, and career counseling. Further, it is big volume and flows at a speed which makes it difficult to be subjected to human review. Some researchers consider it as an internal part of the G2G sector and others deal with it as a separate sector of e-government. The PSI can be defined “as any kind of information that is produced and/or collected by a public body and it is part of the institution’s mandated role” (Dragos & Neamtu, 2009, p. 4). Transformational Government is the use of computer-based information and communications technologies (ICT) to change the way governments work. Finally, it points to varying levels of Internet censorship in Asia. When juxtaposed, the functionalities of HIE and e-government appear to cross paths. South African Government . The People’s Republic of China has largely harnessed it for purposes of promoting economic growth, state surveillance, and legitimating the Communist Party, forming one of the world’s worst digital panopticons. Kerry Tanner, in Research Methods (Second Edition), 2018. ples, this article suggests that e-government is an evolutionary phenomenon and therefore e-government initiatives should be accordingly derived and implemented. However, little of the content was offered in the local language. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2007, Vol. Kerala developed an e-health initiative. security, e-signatures, authentication). The concept of e-governance is now moving towards reality for Indian citizens. It notes the major impacts of internet-based governance, including enhanced citizen participation and access, reduced corruption, electronic taxes and voting, and safer, cleaner, and healthier cities. The National e-Governance Plan (2003-2007) 1 of Indian Government seeks to lay the foundation and provide the impetus for long-term growth of e-Governance within the country. E-governance to Employee partnership (G2E) Is one of four main primary interactions in the delivery model of E-governance. Kiosks allow locals to pay electricity, water, and telephone bills online; reserve and pay for bus tickets; obtain birth and death certificates; and apply for passports. Finally, it contextualizes e-government in Asia by noting the region's considerable diversity, rapid economic growth, and varying rates of internet use, using several maps. It also instituted Karnataka Valuation and E-Registration (KAVERI) that allows online registration of property sales and purchases and deeds in 387 Sub-Registrars’ Offices (Bhatnagar and Singh, 2010). It is defined as the electronic exchange of money for goods and services. Several states allow online vaccination appointments and disease-monitoring system. Thus, the different rankings, benchmarking reports and international comparative surveys can be misleading in the sense that they sometimes do not take the influence, impact and conditioning effect of specific national governmental structure into account.[6]. International Journal of Information Management, The International Information & Library Review. The PSI is regulated by the European PSI Directive on repurposing of public information that was enacted in December 2003 and was to be implemented in the member states by July 2005. The introduction and uptake of e-government services and processes will remain minimal without a legal equivalence between digital and paper processes. [36] Clearly, e-government will affect the existing legal framework. Bhatnagar Subhash.(2004). In the first year, more than 6000 complaints were filed. 1. A major proportion of the material was collected and prepared in 2006. The CARD system was copied in Maharashtra and Punjab. The right to privacy is also an essential ingredient of personal liberty. While the right to privacy has been enumerated by the courts as one of the rights available to persons under Article 21 of the Constitution, the courts have held that it is not absolute. Second, it introduces several major theoretical perspectives on this issue, including approaches that emphasize stages and the technology acceptance model. Government ranking by the 3 e-Government research bodies. In Andhra Pradesh (population 80 million), where 40% of the population is illiterate, the SmartGov project saw that 214 deed registration offices were computerized, eliminating the need for corrupt middlemen for people to obtain services. Olugbade Oladokun, in Concepts and Advances in Information Knowledge Management, 2014. Read more… Accenture, which sells e-government services, says effective delivery is … In Design Secrets of the World’s Best e-Government Web Sites, the Asia-Pacific online communications powerhouse FutureGov singles out eight national e-government portals as the best-designed in the world, and identifies the best practices these sites exemplify. It started in 42 villages in Ujjain district and eventually involved 6500 centers serving 40,000 villages in 10 Indian states, catering to more than 4 million farmers. For example, the e-participants who learn more about community issues (thanks to the easy-to-use e-participation applications and the quality of government responsiveness) are likely to perceive that the government agencies offering the e-participation program are capable of improving transparency, two-way communication with citizens, and participatory governance. Changidar created a centralized system to coordinate hospital appointments. 148,883 signatures, now closed. More sophisticated applications include processing on-line payments. “Typically, each center provides locale specific information of weather and local weather forecasts, prices of agricultural inputs and outputs, potential for export, entitlement of government and other benefits, health care, cattle diseases, transport, wave heights, areas of abundant fish catch, etc.” (Rao, 2007, p. 504). Through the adoption of a common exchange interface that acts as a standard plug-in for any application, a common cooperative process is established to automatically exchange information and services between ICT applications. [31] The Indian legal system though robust and based on a strong historical tradition is proving somewhat ineffective for the growth and development of advancing technologies. Kerala has been innovative in other ways. Tax collections from the system tripled over the next 2 years. The implementation of e-Government has led to an increase in information and especially digitally born information, which puts new demands on information and records management practices (The International Records Management Trust, 2004). A pilot study in Gujarat led to a system whereby farmers delivering milk (mostly women) had it weighed and all accounting information was then handled online. The benefits of e-governance, tele-education, tele-medicine, e-commerce and e-judiciary initiatives should be reaped at through these Knowledge centres. These are technology intensive laws to control and safeguard electronic transactions in the electronic medium. Central to transparent government is access to information by the general public and the media (Bohlin, 2010; Regeringskansliet, 2009). Information Technology Law and E-government: A Developing Country Perspective. E-government evolution has been described as a government’s internal process of digital development, which eventually transforms its ability to respond to the public. E-government is primarily driven by a growing demand for better services from investors and citizens, who now experience vastly improved services from the private sector. Seamless communication and information flow and data management are the primary preconditions of an effective e-government structure. Users report going to fewer government offices and conducting their business more rapidly than previously. (Article 17 refers to the right to privacy). In many of the places where e-government has been introduced, it has shown that it can work, and it can have a wide impact on government efficiency and effectiveness. and Bhattacharya Jaijit Selected Aspects of Interoperability in One-stop, 12. G2E refers to the relationship between government … Ltd. 2004. Efforts to computerize land records in the region date back to the 1990s, but Bhoomi accelerated registration considerably (Bhatnagar and Chawla, 2007). By 2006, more than 5 million people utilized it, and it had registered 4 million land titles and 2.16 million encumbrance certificates. In fact, regulatory reform is one of the critical issues that has often been overlooked. What follow are e-government examples based in the U.K., where organizations are leading the way in government digital transformation. The widespread use of technology provides new challenges to governments, organizations and auditors. According to a report published by the European Commission (European Commission, n.d.), PSI is crucial to the well-functioning of the internal market, free circulation of goods, services, and people. agencies of National, State, Municipal & Local levels, citizen & businesses, and to empower citizens through access & use of Information.”, E-Government solutions are open systems and are exposed to more and different risks from traditional systems. Nonetheless, e-crime is a unique threat that can be carried out from anywhere against any computer system or user in the world. TARAhaat offers a cornucopia of services in 22 centers “like TARAbazaar (e-bazaar), TARAvan (mobile kiosks), TARAguru (e-education), TARAdhabi (cybercafé), TARAreporter (news), TARAdak (email), TARAvendor (e-commerce), and TARAcard (greetings)” (Harris and Rajora, 2006, p. 7). To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Citizens received responses within a maximum of 7 days. 11. In Thirupillachalli, a public trust, Activists for Social Alternatives, which works to empower rural women, set up 200 kiosks, or Community Technology Centres, which provide matrimonial and educational services, grievance redressals, and discounts to local hospitals (Harris and Rajora, 2006). E-Transaction : where citizens move from a passive to active role. Government information is currently looked upon as a “gold mine” that should be explored by various stakeholders to boost national development through the creation of electronic services. Electronic government is the adoption of data knowledge-based technologies such as internet, Wide area networks and mobiles by the government bureaus. They are looked upon as capable e-Government co-developers with the capability to use government information to develop new services and hence increase the innovation and development potential of the society at large. The population was accessed via an online survey on a popular Hong Kong web-portal that gives residents access to e-government services. The next stage involves the use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the actual delivery of service such as filing a tax return, renewing a license, etc. e-Government implies the implementation of information and communication technology like internet, to improve government activities and process, with the aim of increasing efficiency, transparency, and citizen involvement. 3, Issue 2, pp. Workshop Report., International Workshop On Strategic Framework for e-Governance Learning about Europe s best practices Chandigarh, India 18-20 October 2004 ”, www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Trade_Agreement_09-41.pdf, lri.jur.uva.nl/~winkels/eGov2002/Leith.pdf. The LokMitra project, in Himachal Pradesh, set up a rural intranet to allow rural villagers to express grievances to officials. E-government, in full electronic government, the use of information and communication technologies, particularly the Internet, in government.. A popular way of conceptualizing e-government is to distinguish between three spheres of technologically mediated interactions. In the last decade, several countries have gone through a process of economic liberalization and economic growth. Electronic transactions offer a better hope for improved efficiency for both the customer and the government agency than simply “cataloguing information”. [15], E-Communication: Communication matters and the primary thrust of e-government is to develop and maintain an effective e-communication protocol between the government and citizens and across and beyond government agencies. OECD governments are aware of the need for a framework to provide for enforceable electronic transactions, both in the e-government sphere and for electronic commerce, and have taken action. E-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) to put government services online, as well as to exchange information between the government and citizens, businesses and other government agencies. This chapter shall provide insights into terms such as e-Government and e-Governance, e-Democracy, Open Data, Smart City, and discuss to which extent they can make an impact on society—and where they fail. Run by educated local youth who earn fees, they allowed online access in Hindi to 20 public services: email; government applications; filing of complaints; printing of land records; applications for driver’s licenses; matrimonial services; information on agricultural prices; an auction site for sales and purchases of land, equipment and animals; matrimonial advertisements; horoscope services; online discussion forums; and a public complaint line for reporting broken irrigation pumps, unfair prices, absentee teachers, and other problems. e-Grocery, e-ticketing), and even C2C – primary examples being Craig’s list and e-Bay. A. Definition and type of E-government variety exist due to history and culture difference. governance reform. The adoption of a common general model to ensure cooperation between architectural applications enables a smooth interaction between citizens and the various agencies, independently of the specific platforms and solutions adopted by each agency. According to Sheridan and Riley (2006), e-governance is a broader concept that deals with the whole spectrum of the relationship and networks within government regarding the usage and application of ICTs [12], Strong and effective rules related with IT has to be formulated and strongly implemented. Looking for a flexible role? Prior to Bhoomi, all “mutation requests” to change RTC titles were written on paper and handled by accountants in 9000 villages, which could take up to 2 years. Some user rights may require formal legislative protection rather than simply good license language. [25], This is usually seen as one of the major advantages of E-Government – connection between the various parts of government to provide flows of information between what currently is partitioned by cultural and legal barriers (that is, departmental and institutional responsibilities). For example, Austria, which has one of the most popular e-government offerings, uses a standard “citizen card” approach to identity management, thereby simplifying the log-on process. Examples of legislation passed or sought to be passed in Asia include Australia’s Electronic Transactions Act 1999, Broadcasting Services Amendment (On-Line Services) Act 1999, Privacy (Private Sector) Bill and the Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Bill 1999 Many governments and regulatory bodies in Asia are beginning to recognize the economic potential of e-commerce and are considering a number of policy initiatives designed to encourage its development. Filing of Taxation & Payments Like customers who purchase and pay on-line, citizens and businesses of some local government jurisdictions are allowed to file taxation and pay taxes electronically. If we approach E-Government in a purely technically oriented manner then we are certainly asking for trouble. The Swedish e-Government Delegation’s report, e.g., emphasized the effective management of information in the development of the third generation e-Government. Similarly, when two different agencies need to interact to establish common back office procedures, the presence of a standard exchange interface ensures that the data and service flows are set up correctly. It created Samaikya (“coming together for a good cause” in Telugu) Agritech, a digital outreach program with 18 telecenters to service rural farmers, which provide information on weather, prices, and best practices. Run by sanchalaks, or trained, entrepreneurial farmers, in whose homes the kiosks are located, they provide information, in the vernacular, to farmers about prices, weather, best practices, and allow them to apply for soil, water, and virus testing services. Tamil Nadu, in southern India, which has not participated significantly in India’s economic growth, imitated the CARD system that arose in Andhra Pradesh, developed Registration Department Encumbrance Certificate Network, a website that identifies the value of every property in the state, and unlike CARD, which was available on in English, offers information in Tamil. While there are also corporate-led initiatives, the focus here remains on publicly funded or operated ones. Barney Warf, in E-Government in Asia, 2017. Also, there are a number of complex business relationships among vendors that are arguably problematic for promoting competition, affordable costs, and access rights. In Maharashtra, the Warana Wired Village Project created networked “facilitation booths” staffed by local youths to provide internet access and 12 public services to 25 local cooperative societies, particularly 22,000 sugarcane and dairy producers distributed around 70 villages (Saji, 2006). In addition to the Internet, mobile phones offer an even more convenient channel through which to distribute government information. What are the types or forms of E-Governance? It provides broadband services to 200 pachayats, and allows filing of grievances, offers information on crop prices, online sales of products, matchmaking services, and printing of land records. Dr. Sharma Sobti Kaur Davinder, Azad Devendra. Gyandoot won the Stockholm Challenge IT Award in 2000, and was judged a best practice by the IMF, World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. (2004) Legal, Regulatory and Policy Issues of e-Commerce in Asia. In the second phase, the interaction between government and the public (G2C and G2B) is stimulated with various applications. In the midst of this excitement, however, their remains a great disparity and persistent digital 4 World e-government rankings United Nations E-Government Survey 2010 As a result of these changes, the world aver-age of the e-government development index regis-tered a slight decline compared to previous years. South Korea has the best e-government system not only in Asia but in the entire world. [8] In spite of the economic restructuring in many developing countries such as India, the public administration in developing countries still continued to remain highly bureaucratised and extremely centralised . Better Public Services through e-government "A significant amount of taxpayers’ money is being spent on delivering public services through electronic means. No. 4. It passed initiatives such as Package for Effective Administration of Registration, a digital land registration system, and Fast Reliable Instant Efficient Network for Disbursement of Services (FRIENDS) that enables citizens to access several public services electronically. The term is commonly used to describe a government reform strategy which attempts to radically change the way people understand government, especially those working within government. In addition, electricity outages occasionally left some kiosks unusable. In fact, one-third of local government offer services completely online. Information is not always available to government departments easily, nor should it be: why should the department of agriculture be allowed easy access to records from the prison service? Walsham (2010, p.14) notes several shortcomings: Firstly, the Bhoomi system computerised only one document in the overall land registration process, leaving a range of other documents on land title, cadastral maps etc. The Directive focuses on the economic aspects of public information reuse (European Union, 2003). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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[10] The financial sector is revolutionized through ICT, but the democracy and e-voting concept is still a dream. But the road leading to a seamless e-Government is not an easy one. In contrast, Hong Kong and Taiwan, have deployed IT to enhance the quality of people’s lives, making them safer and more convenient. 2009, p. 216), and conducts more than 50 million transactions per year. Bangaloreans can also participate in local administration through an initiative called WardWorks, giving input on priorities for the local budget. The system was organized through public–private partnerships with the telecommunications operator Bharat Sanchar Nigam, in which private firms provided the hardware and software in return for transactions fees. For example, Fornefeld, Boele-Keimer, Recher, and Fanning (2009) argued that in most European public administrations making information available to the private sector is an indication of a cultural change. Thus the draft policy targets reliable long-term accessibility of public documents and information. There were 4,127 valid responses received from Stage 1 of the survey, and 2,220 from Stage 2. E-Seva consists of a series of 275 community one-stop kiosks scattered throughout Hyderabad, Secunderabad, and the Ranga Reddy district, each of which serves roughly 30,000 people using LINUX software and dial-up telephone connections. Chhattisgarh, a new state created in 2000, formed a series of e-government initiatives, including: Bhuiyan, to computerize land records; E-Sangwari, to provide online access to birth, death, and caste certificates; E-Panchayat, to inform rural people about welfare programs (Subramanian and Saxena, 2006); and an online leprosy eradication program.

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